A Fresh Study of Cosmology, Part 3

Part 3

Copyright 2001 Stanley Fay White

UpPart 4


EXISTING on a small planet in a sea of expanding galaxies, we cannot get a snapshot of the universe free of time distortion.  Such a snapshot would resolve many questions regarding the nature of the universe, but we are not so privileged.  From the view on our small orb, we can at best get a time-distorted view of the universe.  Our astronomers' view of things is warped because of this time distortion.  When an astronomer peers into space 12 billion light years away, it is difficult to keep the focus that this is not only a distance he is viewing, but also a time shift.  The astronomer is
not only looking OUT in space 12 billion light years away, he is looking BACKWARD in time 12 billion years simultaneously.  When the astronomer observes quasars, he is not only looking at objects 12 billion light years distance; he is seeing them 12 billion years in the past.  Both measurements are correct.

Quasars can be viewed in all directions.  They form a sphere 12 billion light years distance in radius from us.  They also inhabit this sphere as it existed 12 billion years ago.  When we look at quasars, we are looking at them as they were 12 billion years ago. These quasars were moving away from us at near the speed of light, 12 BILLION YEARS AGO (as verified by the spectral shift).  There is no reason to believe that the quasars changed their receding velocity in the past 12 billion years.  By extrapolation, the sphere of quasars today (if we could get a snapshot of them) is 24 billion light years away (in all directions).  The quasars are not at the periphery of the universe, but are the furthermost objects we currently are able to observe.  A sea of hydrogen extends beyond quasars.

Hydrogen atoms and molecules cannot form at high temperature.  They can only exist in temperatures of a few thousand degrees or less.  When the Primordial Plasma Ball came into being and began expanding, after a while part of it precipitated into protons and electrons.  That, which did not form atomic particles, continues as radiation outward into space to this day.  If this radiation had reached the periphery of the zero energy photon sea 12 billion years ago, it would have reflected and would light up the heavens.   As it has not lit up the heavens, the zero energy photon sea can be assumed to exist beyond 12 billion light years distance.  The atomic particles that precipitated from the Plasma Ball did not coalesce into atoms and molecules when the protons and electrons were first formed, for the temperature in the plasma ball was too high for their existence.

It is estimated that the Plasma Ball continued to expand for a billion or so years before the temperature in the expanding ball was low enough for hydrogen atoms and molecules to form, The first matter in the universe was hydrogen.  Quasars developed much later.  If we are looking backward in time only hydrogen existed near the beginning of the plasma ball expansion. After the Hydrogen Sea cooled and broke up into galaxy sized clouds, the hydrogen clouds continued to breakup until stellar sized clouds appeared.  To date we cannot get a clear enough picture of quasars to determine the nature of stellar formation within quasars.  This mystery has yet to be resolved.  If we look through a telescope, we see galaxies as the latest creation, and quasars appearing further back in time. As quasars do not exist in recent times (less that about 10 billion years ago) it is not clear what became of them as time went on. A sea of hydrogen beyond the quasar region is not visible because hydrogen is a transparent gas.  On a time-warped scale, a sea of hydrogen extends beyond quasars.  If we are weighing the matter in the universe, we can weigh the galaxies, weigh the quasars but cannot weigh the
sea of hydrogen, for we do not know the extent of the hydrogen sea.  It looks like we can assume that the Hydrogen Sea is 10 times more massive than visible matter, for that is how much matter is unaccounted for.

The Structure of the Universe

In structure, our universe is a sea of zero energy photons that extends beyond measurement, with islands of energy-laden photons scattered about. What we perceive as space is actually a seal of zero energy photons.   Pure empty space cannot transmit energy or anything made from energy, as energy only exists in as the rotation of photons.  This is one way universes are kept separate in our reality, if indeed there are other universes.  Space in our universe is not empty; it is a vast sea of zero energy photons, existing cheek by jowl so to speak.  Energy laden photons are trapped in our universe; they cannot translocate in empty space.

One of the proofs of the existence of this sea of zero energy photons is the velocity of light.  Light doesn't travel at infinite velocity; it travels at "c" because it travels in a sea of photons at a resonance of the Photon Sea.  If there were no photon sea, the Primordial Singularities could not have collided, as they could not have moved. If they had collided, they
could not have produced a plasma ball, without the zero energy photon sea. Light does not exist in vacuo; it is carried by photons.  Photons do not translocate, they rotate.  Energy is the action of rotation of photons.  As all matter is composed of rotating photons, matter cannot exceed the speed of transmission of photon rotary energy through the Photon Sea.  This is why matter cannot exceed the speed of light.  Energy moves through what we perceive as space by being passed from energy bearing photon to photon in the sea of zero energy photons.  Photons do not move "at the speed of light", the
energy of rotation of a photon is so transmitted at this velocity. This is a resonance between rotating photons and zero energy photons. The transmitted energy appears as a three-field wave. This energy is the undulatory transmission of photon rotation through the medium of zero energy photons at the resonance of the medium.  When a photon rotates, it generates a three-field structure.

So what is this mysterious thing called a photon?  This is a fundamental question of cosmology.  The answer to this question cannot be determined directly.  A tentative suggestion can be drawn from Inductive Analysis (see http://www.newphysics2000.org/).  A discussion of the nature and structure of photons based upon Inductive Analysis, is available on that website.  Inductive Analysis is a new tool that makes it possible to synthesize the results of scientific experiments.  Experiments are formulated from certain assumptions.  If the assumptions are flawed, the experiment may
well be flawed as well.  Experiments can contradict one another as witness experiments in medicine.  Inductive Analysis hopefully resolves the seeming dichotomies of some raw experiments. Experiments are facts empirically arrived at.  The conclusions of experiments are derived from experiment, not from a theoretical framework.  Analytical frameworks can be derived from the facts of experiment, but the process is a one way street.  The function of I.A. is to disambiguate the conflicting evidence of experiments. Among other things, I.A. resolves dichotomies that seem to suggest that the universe is not internally consistent.  If such were the case, experiment would be meaningless.  The fundamental thesis of experiment is that if something happens once, it will happen the same way again, if the conditions are repeated. Repeatability is a keystone of science.  Science works.  If there were a dichotomy in the structure of natural law, Science would not work.

Inductive Analysis begins by gathering all known facts about a subject and then  synthesizing the facts into a compatible whole.  This technique can be used to discover the structure and nature of photons just as it was used to discover the nature and structure of atomic particles.  Before proceeding with our history of the universe, we will briefly explore the structure and nature of photons, as photons are the fundamental element (building block) in the universe.  Photons carry the energy of the universe.  Energy does not exist in vacuo. Energy is stored in the rotational energy of photons.  I.A. shows that energy causes photons to rotate. Energy appears as this rotational energy of photons. It is this photon rotational stored energy that is passed from photon to photon in the enveloping sea of zero energy photons, creating
a perturbation in the medium.

This perturbation appears as an electromagnetic wave that is propagated through the medium of zero energy photons. Photons don't translate; they just pass along the stored energy of rotation from photon to photon in the sea of zero energy photons.  The passage of photon stored energy creates a wave phenomena, comparable to acoustic waves, water waves
and the like.  The transmission of energy from photon to photon is an all or nothing affair.  The reason radiant energy moves in a straight line is because photons are discrete particles having orientation due to their rotation orientation.  The transmission of energy is from one photon particle to another maintaining constant rotational orientation all along, resulting in straight-line transmission.  The effect is to create the illusion of the existence of a moving particle as one aspect of the perturbation.

In an acoustic wave, the air molecules do not "move", they are just displaced linearly momentarily as the acoustic energy passes through the medium.  A similar process occurs in water waves, except that water has an interface with air.  If you have ever been out on the ocean etc. you will experience water waves that seem to be traveling along the surface of the
water.  The reality is that the individual water molecules move around in circles, they do not translocate.  It is the wave that has legs, not the water molecules.  In general, waves are sinusoidal in nature.  They are usually expressed mathematically in terms of a rotating wheel.   Trigonometrical functions are generally used to quantify the motion.  It
would seem that rotational motion is at the root of sinusoidal motion.  This is why the attribute of rotation is assumed to be associated with photon action, as the transmitted electromagnetic waves are sinusoidal.

The Creator seems to like rotary motion.  Photons rotate, the trapped photon in atomic particles rotates spherically, electrons "spin", orbiters in atoms revolve, the earth rotates, all of the celestial bodies in the solar system revolve, our galaxy revolves--it is just possible that the entire universe revolves.  Centrifugal force might account for some of the motion of galaxies one with the other.  Before one looks for mysterious forces, the known ones should be thoroughly explored.  It might not make headlines, but it is good science.

Initial Conditions
(After the "Big Bang")

The Primordial Singularities were spherical photon standing waves imbedded in an endless sea of zero energy photons. These spherical waves were generated by a sphere of photons that passed the energy of an energy bearing photon from photon to photon in the photon spheres that were the Primordial Singularities.  This spherical transfer of energy occurred at the speed of light "c". The energy of the waves was carried by the photon energy of rotation.  The energy transferred endlessly around the sphere of photons in a spherical sub-harmonic standing wave.  In one of the Primordial Singularities the positive half of the electric wave (generated by the trapped energy bearing photon was oriented outward and in the other Primordial Singularity the negative half of the electric wave was oriented outward.  The collision of these two anti-particles caused their annihilation.  The annihilation occurred with a "Big Bang", with the production of the Primordial Plasma Ball. This was the genesis of our universe.  (The revolving sphere of energy in atomic particles does not escape, because it is trapped in a micro black hole that is the particle.)

The creation of the Plasma Ball was a creative act.  The energy of two energy bearing photons (one each in the two Primordial Singularities) was not transferred to two high energy photons leaving the point of annihilation in opposite directions (the action of atomic particle annihilation). It was transferred to a myriad of micro photons of energy leaving the point of annihilation in all directions.  This phenomenon was a creative event, for it had never occurred before. Creative acts are not "chance" events, for there is no record of a creative chance event.  Chance is random, creative acts are purposeful.  No matter was present initially in the Primordial Plasma Ball. The total content of the initial PPB was pure rotational photon energy imbedded in the enveloping sea of zero energy photons.  As a result, the environment of said ball was serene.  Turbulence did not exist.  Turbulence is a property of atomic particles, not free energy bearing photons. 

If we examine the structure of stellar explosions, we see that the mass of the stellar explosion is contained in a spherical toroid at the periphery of the explosion.  This is seen visually in a telescope as a toroid ring.  Such distribution of energy probably occurred in the Primordial Plasma Ball.  A sphere of intense energy occurred as a spherical expanding toroid,
with lesser amounts of energy occurring inside this toroid as the toroid expanded.  If this is so, it substantiates the view that most of the mass of the Plasma Ball is in the hydrogen sea that exists beyond the sphere of observable Quasars.  It is logical that if we could observe this hydrogen sea as it exists today, it is probably full of galaxies of one kind or another. This was probably not so 12 billion years ago, for we see nothing beyond the quasars.  Beyond the quasars, it was a sea of pure transparent hydrogen of unknown dimension.