A Fresh Study of Cosmology, Part 4

Part 4

Copyright 2001 Stanley Fay White


After the Singularity Annihilation

From our vantage point of the new physics, we can more realistically examine the landscape of the universe before atomic particles were precipitated from the Plasma Ball.  What we had after the Big Bang was a fiery ball of energy laden photons rapidly expanding into a sea of zero energy photons.  Energy does not exist in vacuo.  Energy is stored in the rotation of activated photons.  Photons do not translocate, they rotate. Their rotational energy is transferred from photon to photon in the zero energy photon sea.  The activated photons originated in what was essentially a point and transferred their rotational energy outward spherically through the photon sea in what is perceived as the Primordial Plasma Ball.  The photon electromagnetic energy wave expanded radially at the speed of light in sort of a spherical mushroom cloud with most of the energy in the periphery of the cloud.  Zero energy photons have a number of spherical resonant frequencies, in addition to their linear resonance.  Spherical resonant frequencies in the zero energy photon sea higher than the proton frequency produced particles that were unstable and transitory.  Probably these resonant frequencies were often occupied and vacated by such transitory particles as the Plasma Ball expanded.  The presence of such particles would have disturbed the flow of radiating energy, causing part of the radiating energy to take paths in the expanding ball that were not radially oriented. This would have complicated the flow of energy and partially explain the lumpy distribution of galaxies in the firmament.

Viewed from a safe distance, the expanding primordial plasma ball at a billion mile radius would have appeared structurally as a super nova, with most of its energy in the outer regions. Our telescopes are just now achieving the power to observe the galaxies, called quasars, formed in this early toroidal shaped region.  Present day astronomers have no idea of the structure of atomic particles or atomic nuclei.  Conclusions not based on knowledge of the structure of atomic particles have little or no merit.   Before proceeding further, you might want to examine http://www.newphysics2000.org and discover for yourself the structure of atomic particles.  With this knowledge, you can determine for yourself the error in present day thinking.  In a word, the scenarios being proposed are impossible.

Returning to the initial expansion of the Primordial Plasma Ball, the spherical resonant frequency of a proton is the frequency at which protons could precipitate from the plasma ball.  This can be correlated with energy density in the plasma ball.  The equation is that when the expanding plasma ball density reduced to the energy density of a proton, (due to the expansion of the plasma ball) protons massively precipitated from the plasma ball.  By coincidence, this was one of the spherical resonances of the zero photon sea.

Further, when the energy density of the expanding Plasma Ball reduced to the (lesser) density of the electron, electrons massively precipitated from the Plasma Ball.  By coincidence, this was another spherical resonance of the zero photon sea. Neutrons and other compound atomic particles such as atomic nuclei are combinations of electrons and protons.  As this class of atomic particle could not form before their parts (protons and electrons) were formed, none of these particles (more dense than either individual component) could form in the Plasma Ball after the proton and electron shower. This is so for the energy density necessary to form these complex particles was no longer available after the electron precipitation.

The Hydrogen Sea

The first stars that were created in the universe were composed of pure hydrogen when they first formed.  It took the cauldron of the internal environment of stars to form the complex nuclei of the elements. The expansion of the plasma ball continued for perhaps a billion years or more (depending on the estimate of the total mass of the universe) before the intensity of radiation (temperature) was reduced to the point that protons could unite with electrons and form the first atoms of the universe, hydrogen (a creative act).  Energy densities in the Plasma Ball, necessary for atomic nuclear creation were long gone.

Summarizing, the nature of stable matter creation from the Plasma Ball was such that protons formed first and some time later electrons were formed. By the time the electrons formed, the energy density of the Plasma Ball had dropped to a point that there no longer the density available to form any nuclei of an atom of greater atomic number than hydrogen. Atomic particles are micro black holes with energy (carried by rotating photons) trapped inside.  The atomic particle perimeter is a spherical shell of photons that pass the trapped photon rotational energy endlessly around the shell, from one photon to another.  The appearance is that of a single photon revolving around in the particle envelope, but photons do not translocate in space, they rotate in place. The fields and parameters of the electron domain nevertheless compute using either the refined model or the old "moving photon" model.  (This is the same phenomena that allows the dynamics of an atom to be computed either by mechanical or energy (wave) parameters).   Skipping forward to the vast Primordial Hydrogen Sea that formed subsequently, there is no evidence that this sea was contaminated by any other element. As far as is known, the first generation stars (after the Big Bang) were pure balls of hydrogen that slowly turned their substance from hydrogen into helium from the inside out (as confirmed by spectral analysis and other means).

The articulation of the Primordial Hydrogen Sea into galactic sized masses of hydrogen gas began an explosion of creativity that has been accelerating ever since.  The core of this creativity was the process of atomic nuclei creation, nuclei containing more than one proton.  It was a monumental creation to form neutrons and atomic nuclei from hydrogen. (To date the best minds don't even know the structure of atomic nuclei.)  It was a stroke of genius to carry forward this process in the interior of stars.   Through this process the entire spectrum of atomic nuclei was created from simple hydrogen.  Then the creative force, using the newly available spectrum of nuclei invented the orbital geometry of an atom containing more than one electron. Elemental nuclei contained in the interior of nuclei creating stars have no orbiters.  Elemental atoms are only created after the host star explodes, disgorging their newly created nuclei.  The creation of elemental atoms with their orbital entourage only occurred when the environment temperature was less than 6000 degrees or so.  This was hardly the environment anywhere near a star. These new constellations of atomic particle structures made possible the creation of complex molecules.  From these newly created molecules compounds were made from the assortment of newly created atoms and molecules of various atomic number.  One must keep in focus that in the beginning all that existed were two Primordial Singularities, each containing ONE energy laden photon.  The entire universe EVOLVED from these simple Primordial particles. Comparing the process to biology, the Primordial Singularities can be likened to stem cells.  These singularities were the stem cells of the universe!  Part of the study of cosmology relates to how this evolutionary development of the universe came about.  It was an evolution, the universe as
we know it, did not suddenly and mysteriously appear full blown.  The fact that there was an orderly evolution of the universe is a most astonishing discovery.  Coming to grips with this fact is a fundamental part of cosmology.

Until the structure of the Primordial Singularities and atomic particles was discovered, the evolutionary pattern of the universe was obscure.  On the surface, the distribution of matter in the cosmos seems random and chaotic.  Without a knowledge of the structure of atomic particles, this view, that the universe is massively chaotic, seems logical.   Thanks to Darwin, we have a fairly good knowledge of the evolutionary development of life on earth and subsequently the articulation of the species.  Evolution, based upon our knowledge of the history of various living things would seem to be a demonstrable property of the universe.   Evolution can be seen as the creator's way of making new things. Things evolve, they don't suddenly appear out of nowhere.  No man is an island; each is a part of the main.  When dealing with new information that has not been categorized, it is good science to look for the simplest explanation possible of the phenomena.  In all of his creations, the Creator always chose the simplest and most direct path to his objective.  Sudden unexpected appearance of some new phenomena is suspect.  Everything comes from something.  Nothing appears out of whole cloth.  This is a controlling law of nature.

Creation of the Elements

Imagine for a moment, that you are a creative force having the power of fashioning various configurations of hydrogen. What you begin with is a horrendous homogeneous mass of rapidly expanding hot atomic hydrogen.  How do you create something with it that will be useful?  Until you have created the concept of fusion, all you have is a lot of hot gas.  By allowing chunks of hydrogen gas to begin collapsing into stellar masses (due to mutual gravitational attraction of the parts), the compression that takes place as the gas collapses, (the temperature and pressure rising by the gas law) eventually causes the new creation,  hydrogen fusion, to begin when 100 million degrees is reached in the interior of the star.  With this, a whole new concept in the universe begins. It is known as element creation.  Gamow and others have told the story better than I, but the thrust of the scenario is that through a series of sequential stellar furnaces, the entire 92 elements were eventually created.  As the elements formed, processes relating to molecular behavior were created. This latter day activity created rocks and the various compounds we find in our Solar System and throughout the universe.

The process of elemental nucleus creation took place in the interior of massive stars in a succession of stellar furnaces... Many others have discussed this process.  What has not been explored to any extend is the process of molecular formation, chemical compound formation and the other developmental processes that have occurred at lower temperatures. We stand at the apex of 30 (or more) billion years of such evolutionary creativity. This result is the vision of a creator who foresaw the possibility of our universe being created from a couple of Singularity "stem cells".  The human mind can but stand in overwhelming awe at this incredible achievement.  We have now reached the point in our human development where we can follow the reasoning that brought about our universe from this couple of "stem cells".

Space Junk

A recent development in solar astronomy is the discovery of the Kuiper belt on the periphery of our solar system. Seemingly, there is an extensive belt of comets, asteroids and other space junk in this region.  Some thirty thousand objects of various description have been discovered so far that measure 2 to 100 Km in diameter.  We also have an asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter that contains a lot of little asteroids and space junk. Who has not seen "shooting stars" (meteorites) streaking across the heavens?  There are seemingly a large number of these planetoids that wander in the vicinity of earth's orbit, some of them occasionally crashing onto our planet with devastating results.

Current thinking is that when our sun formed, it drew a lot of space junk into orbit.  Over time, some of this space junk coalesced into the planetary system of our sun, with a considerable residual tonnage of this junk still floating around in the solar system.  Among other unanswered questions is how this material came about.  One point is clear.  Space junk was not created inside of any star.  The interior stellar environment has temperatures far too high to support normal atoms, let alone molecules and compounds.  When stellar explosions occur, the content of the explosions is a "gas cloud ", not rocks, organic compounds and the like.  There is a logical explanation for the creation of "space junk", but to date no satisfactory explanation has been offered concerning what seems to be stellar debris. These are not trite questions.  From this space junk has come planet creation and the ingredients of life.  We are learning that most of the ingredients for life, water, organic compounds and the like are found on places like Mars, the moons of Jupiter etc., as well as earth. All of these places are composed of space junk. Life is the most recent development in the universe.   Life has developed from space junk.  How life has been created from space junk is an important question, waiting to be answered.

An additional comment on space junk.  There are those who advocate the "chance" scenario for the creation of life in the universe. There is no known scenario that shows that it is possible to create life from space junk by chance.  At the present time, we do not even know the process of creation of space junk, let alone life.  In order to go from random space junk to a planet revolving at the right distance around a star, a number of creative acts are necessary. To splash said planet with just enough comet juice to create the oceans of the earth is another creative act in itself.  Such a planet is probably a recent development in the universe.  To date we have yet to discover another such planet revolving around a star in our vicinity.   Even with such a planet in place (not your every day event), creating a living cell that could survive in the early environment on earth is next to impossible to have occurred by chance.

If we burden our doubting Thomases with the 30 billion year development scenario that preceded the availability of space junk, the game becomes foolhardy.  In the evolution of the universe from Primordial "stem cells" to the availability of space junk, any mishap along the way (in the logical development), would have thrown the train off the track.  Each building block was made possible by what went before.  Without atomic particles of the nature that exists, there would have been no hydrogen atoms. Without hydrogen atoms, there would have been no development of the elements, etc etc. Everything that has occurred has been necessary to make life possible.  This speaks nothing of the creation of a baby's smile, or the existence of love.  Love was created by chance?  What a cruel world the "chance people" live in. An examination of the complex design of a living cell shows that the chance creation of such a cell is more improbable than finding Ford automobiles running around with dinosaurs.  Anything is possible, but finding DNA gambling around by chance in a primordial swamp, stretches credulity to the breaking point.  A universe with the property of change by evolution is not a chance based universe.  In our universe, we see not only evolution, but also evolution with a purpose, for such a profoundly evolved universe without purpose would have no meaning.  For one to state that the spirit of life and of man is meaningless defies logic and the essence of being.  Hume said, "I think, therefore I am" What he was saying was that the ability to think gives life meaning (from a homocentric) point of view.  To deny meaning is to deny human existence.  The debate has not ended, but "chances are" there is meaning to the universe.