Table of contents
Extremists from various ideological perspectives attach significance to the arrival of the year 2000, and there are some signs of preparations for violence. The significance of the new millennium is based primarily upon either religious beliefs relating to the Apocalypse/Armageddon, or political beliefs relating to the New World Order conspiracy theory. The challenge to law enforcement is to understand these extremist theories and, if any incidents do occur, be prepared to respond to the unique crises they will represent.
Law enforcement officials should be particularly aware that the new millennium may increase the odds that extremists may engage in proactive violence specifically targeting law enforcement officers. Religiously motivated extremists may initiate violent conflicts with law enforcement officials in an attempt to facilitate the onset of Armageddon, or to help fulfill a "prophesy." For many on the extreme right-wing, the battle of Armageddon is interpreted as a race war to be fought between Aryans and the "satanic" Jews and their allies. Likewise, extremists who are convinced that the millennium will lead to a One World Government may choose to engage in violence to prevent such a situation from occurring. In either case, extremists motivated by the millennium could choose martyrdom when approached or confronted by law enforcement officers. Thus, law enforcement officials should be alert for the following: 1) plans to initiate conflict with law enforcement; 2) the potential increase in the number of extremists willing to become martyrs; and 3) the potential for a quicker escalation of conflict during routine law enforcement activities (e.g. traffic stops, issuance of warrants, etc.).
19. There were 12 tribes of Israel but they were divided into two different kingdoms after the death of King Solomon. The northern kingdom was called "Israel" and consisted of ten tribes and the southern kingdom was called "Judah" and was comprised of two tribes. There is a record of the two tribes making up the southern kingdom, but the ten northern tribes were "lost" after they were conquered around 722 BC by the Assyrians.
20. Jeffrey Kaplan, Radical Religion in America (Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1997), p. 47-48.
21. Michael Barkun, Religion and the Racist Right (Chapel Hill, N.C.: The University of North Carolina Press, 1997), p. 60.
22. Anti-Defamation League, Explosion of Hate, p 15.
23. "U.S. Mulls Church Probe; Ties To Killings Investigated," Chicago Tribune, July 9, 1999.
24. "Behind the Hate," The Washington Post, July 6, 1999.
25. Van Huizen lost re-election as commander of the MMCW in late 1997 to the more radical Joe Pilchak.
26. See "Militias- Initiating Contact," FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, July 1997, pp. 22-26.
27. Accessed at www.eagleflt.com.
28. See Fall 1997 edition of the Southern Poverty Law Center’s Intelligence Report, “Rough Waters: Stream of Knowledge Probed by Officials.”
29. Linda Jones. “Claiming a Promised Land: African-American settlers in Israel are guided by idea of independent Black Hebrew Society,” The Dallas Morning News, July 27, 1997.
31. See Fall 1997 Southern Poverty Law Center's Intelligence Report, "Rough Waters: Stream of Knowledge Probed by Officials."
32. Jones, Dallas Morning News, July 27, 1997.
34. Ibid. In fact, in the community of Dimona where the BHI community resides, the Dimona Police Chief spoke in complimentary terms as to the group’s discipline, leadership, and integrity.
35. Frederick C. Mish, ed., Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary 10 th Edition (Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, Incorporated, 1997), p. 282.
36. Margaret Thaler Singer and Janja Lalich, Cults in Our Midst: The Hidden Menace in Our Everyday Lives (San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1995), p. 7.
37. Singer and Lalich, p. 7.
38. Singer and Lalich, pp.8-9.
39. Carl J. Jensen, III, Rod Gregg and Adam Szubin, "When a Cult Comes to Town," accessed from Law Enforcement Online.
40. Kevin M. Gilmartin, "The Lethal Triad: Understanding the Nature of Isolated Extremist Groups," accessed at www.leo.gov/tlib/leb/1996/sept961/txt.
41. Carl J. Jensen, III and Yvonne Hsieh, “Law Enforcement and the Millennialist Vision: A Behavioral Approach,” accessed from Law Enforcement Online.
43. B.A. Robinson in “Factors Commonly Found in Doomsday Cults,” (www.religioustolerance.org/cultsign.htm.) identifies traits that provide a framework for analyzing cults. They include the following: (1) The leader preaches end of the world/Armageddon in 2000 or within a reasonable time frame before and after 2000; (2) the cult expects to play a major, elite role at the end time; (3) the cult has large numbers of firearms, explosives or weapons of mass destruction; (4) the cult has prepared defensive structures; (5) the cult speaks of offensive action; (4) the cult is led by a single male charismatic leader; (5) the leader dominates the membership through physical, sexual and emotional control; (6) the cult is not an established denomination; (7) cult members live together in a community isolated from society; (8) extreme paranoia exists within the cult concerning monitoring by outsiders and government persecution; (9) and outsiders are distrusted, and disliked. These factors are designed to leave out cults that have unique end-time beliefs, but whose ideology does not include the advocacy of force or violence.
44. Jeffrey Kaplan, Radical Religion in America, p.57.
45. Ibid., p.165.
46. Lisa Beyer, “Target: Jerusalem,” Time Magazine, January 18, 1999.
47. Arabs refer to this site as Haram al-Sharif, which is Arabic for "Noble Sanctuary." Israelis refer to it as Har HaBayit, which is Hebrew for "Temple Mount." American news organizations almost always refer to it as the Temple Mount. Therefore, for the sake of simplicity and continuity, the term Temple Mount will be used in this report when referring to this section of Jerusalem.