Christian History

Flavius Josephus


Antiquities of the jews


The Wars of the Jews




Book 1 - Church History: A.D. 33 - 604
Chapter 1    The Age of the Apostles (AD 33 - 100)
Chapter 2    St. Ignatius (AD 116)
Chapter 3    St. Justin, Martyr (AD 166)
Chapter 4    St. Polycarp (AD 166)
Chapter 5    The Martyrs of Lyons and Vienne (AD 177)
Chapter 6    Tertullian--Perpetua and her Companions (AD 181 - 206)
Chapter 7    Origen (AD 185 - 254)
Chapter 8    St Cyprian (AD 200 - 253)
Chapter 9    The Last Persecution
Chapter 10    Constantine the Great (AD 313 - 337)
Chapter 11    The Council of Nicaea (AD 325)
Chapter 12    St. Athanasius AD 325 - 337)
Chapter 13    The Monks
Chapter 14    St. Basil and St. Gregory of Nazianzum
Chapter 15    St. Ambrose (AD 374 - 397)
Chapter 16    The Temple of Serapis (AD 391)
Chapter 17    Church Government
Chapter 18    Christian Worship
Chapter 19    Arcadius and Honorius (AD 395 - 423)
Chapter 20    St. John Chrysostom (AD 347 - 407)
Chapter 21    St. Augustine (AD 354 - 430)
Chapter 22    Councils of Ephesus and Chalcedon (AD 431 - 451)
Chapter 23    Fall of the Western Empire (AD 451 - 476)
Chapter 24    Conversion of the Barbarians--Christianity in Britain
Chapter 25    Scotland and Ireland
Chapter 26    Clovis (AD 496)
Chapter 27    Justinian (AD 527 - 565)
Chapter 28    Nestorians and Monophysites
Chapter 29    St. Benedict (AD 480 - 529)
Chapter 30    End of the Sixth Century
Chapter 31    St. Gregory the Great (AD 540 - 604)

Book 2 - Church History: A.D. 589 - 1517
Chapter 1    Mahometanism; Image worship (AD 612 - 794)
Chapter 2    The Church in England
Chapter 3    St. Boniface (AD 680 - 755)
Chapter 4    Pipin and Charles the Great(AD 741 - 814)
Chapter 5    Decay of Charles the Great’s Empire (AD 814 - 887)
Chapter 6    State of the Papacy (AD 891 - 1046)
Chapter 7    Missions of the Ninth and Tenth Centuries
Chapter 8    Pope Gregory VII
Chapter 9    The First Crusade (AD 1095 - 1099)
Chapter 10    New Orders of Monks--Military Orders
Chapter 11    St. Bernard (AD 1091 - 1153)
Chapter 12    Adrian IV
Chapter 13    Innocent The Third (AD 1198 - 1216)
Chapter 14    Frederick II--St. Lewis of France
Chapter 15    Peter of Murrone (AD 1294)
Chapter 16    Boniface VIII
Chapter 17    The Popes at Avignon--Ruin of the Templars
Chapter 18    The Popes at Avignon (continued) (AD 1314 - 1352)
Chapter 19    Religious Sects and Parties
Chapter 20    John Wyclif (AD 1324 - 1384)
Chapter 21    The Popes return to Rome
Chapter 22    The Great Schism (AD 1378 - 1410)
Chapter 23    John Huss (AD 1369 - 1414)
Chapter 24    The Council of Constance (AD 1414 - 1418)
Chapter 25    The Hussites (AD 1418 - 1431)
Chapter 26    Councils of Basel and Florence (AD 1431 - 1439)
Chapter 27    Nicolas V and Pius II (AD 1447 - 1464)
Chapter 28    Jerome Savonarola (AD 1452 - 1498)
Chapter 29    Julius II and Leo X AD 1503 - 1521)
Chapter 30    Missions--The Inquisition


Chronology of Christianity (1AD-Present)

Last Update: 28 May 1997 (corrections made)

The purpose of this chronology is to assist Christians of any denomination in their search for knowledge and truth regarding the development of the Christian religion. The primary sources used in assembling this list include a chronology by Paul Harvey available on the Internet from, The World Almanac and Book of Facts, the Academic American Encyclopedia (on Compuserve), Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, and The English Versions of the Bible by John Berchmans Dockery O.F.M. Question marks on dates indicate approximate dates, question marks on other information indicates information which is theoretical and/or not universally accepted as fact.

1AD-36? Life of Jesus Christ

1AD First year in Christian calendar (a.d. = anno Domini) (see 525), Augustus
(Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus) is emperor of Rome
6 Herod Archelaus deposed by Augustus; Samaria, Judea and Idumea annexed as
province Iudaea under direct Roman administration, cap. Caesarea
6-? Quirinius: Legate (Governor) of Syria, 1st Roman tax census of Iudaea
6-9 Coponius: Roman Prefect of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, and Idumea)
7-26 Brief period of peace, free of revolt and bloodshed in Iudaea & Galilee
9-12? M. Ambivius: Roman Prefect of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, and Idumea)
12?-15 Annius Rufus: Roman Prefect of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, and Idumea)
14-37 Tiberius I emperor of Rome, b. 42BC
25? Assumption (Testament) of Moses, original Hebrew extant Latin (Apocrypha)
26-36 Pontius Pilate: Roman Prefect of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, and Idumea)
27-29? John the Baptist begins ministry (Luke 3,1-2) (15th year of Tiberius)
27-34? Jesus baptized by John the Baptist (Mk1:4-11)
33-34? John the Baptist arrested and killed by Herod Antipas (Luke 3,19-20)
33-36? Jesus' ministry
36? Jesus crucified, Friday, Nisan 14th, March 30th, [Ref: John, Unauthorized
Version/Fox] Last Supper would have been Thursday evening. (7Apr30 &
3Apr33 possible Fri/14/Nisan crucifixion dates)

36?-65? Period of oral tradition in Christianity between the time of Jesus and the time
the first gospel (Mark) is written, original Christians disperse throughout
Judea and Samaria (Acts 8,1ff), Peter leads the new Christian Church,
moves the Church headquarters to Rome

36?-67 Period Peter leads the new Christian Church, moves the church headquarters
from Jerusalem to Rome
36?-37 Paul of Tarsus has Stephen martyred and the Jerusalem church destroyed
37 Paul of Tarsus is converted (Acts 9)
37-41 Gaius Caligula emperor of Rome, declared himself god
37-41? Marullus: Roman Prefect of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, and Idumea)
40 Paul goes to Jerusalem to consult with Peter (Gal 1, 18-20)
41-54 Claudius emperor of Rome, killed by poisoning by his wife Agrippina
44 James, brother of John, executed by Herod Agrippa I (Acts 12, 1-3)
47-48 Paul and Barnabas on Cyprus (Acts 13, 4-12)
48-49 Council of Jerusalem, 1st Christian Council, doctrine regarding circumcision
and dietary law is agreed to by apostles and presbyters, written in a letter
addressed to "the brothers of Gentile origin in Antioch, Syria, and Cilicia"
(Acts 15)
48-57? Paul writes Galations
49-50 Paul in Corinth (Acts 18)
50? Peshitta translation begun, Hebrew OT->Syriac Aramaic, (Greek NT in 400)
50? Ascension of Isaiah, original written in Hebrew (Ethiopic Bible)
51-52 Paul writes 1 Thes
51-52 Paul writes 2 Thes
53-62 Paul writes Phil
54-68 Nero emperor of Rome
56 Paul writes 1 Corin
57 Paul writes Romans
57 Paul writes 2 Corin
57 Paul's last visit to Jerusalem [Acts21]
58 Paul arrested, imprisoned in Caesarea [Acts25:4]
59 Nero kills his mother, Agrippina
60 Paul imprisoned in Rome (Acts 28,16)
61-63? Paul? writes Ephesians
61-63 Paul writes Philemon
61-63 Paul writes Colossians
61-63? Paul? writes 1,2 Timothy, Titus, known as "pastoral epistles"
62? James written by leader of Jerusalem community? (Gal 2,9?), "catholic"
62 Paul martyred for treason in Rome
62 {Being therefore this kind of person [i.e., a heartless Sadducee], Ananus,
thinking that he had a favorable opportunity because Festus had died and
Albinus was still on his way, called a meeting [literally, "sanhedrin"] of
judges and brought into it the brother of Jesus-who-is-called-Messiah,
James by name, and some others. He made the accusation that they had
transgressed the law, and he handed them over to be stoned.}
[JA20.9.1,Marginal Jew,p.57]
62 Nero kills his wife Octavia and marries Poppaea Sabina
64 Great fire of Rome, started by Nero and blamed on Christians, {Therefore to
squelch the rumor , Nero
created scapegoats and subjected to the most refined tortures those whom
the common people called "Christians," [a group] hated for their abominable
crimes. Their name comes from Christ, who, during the reign of Tiberius, had
been executed by the procurator Pontius Pilate. Suppressed for the moment,
the deadly superstition broke out again, not only in Judea, the land which
originated this evil, but also in the city of Rome, where all sorts of
horrendous and shameful practices from every part of the world converge
and are fervently cultivated.} [Tacitus Annals 15.44;Marginal
64-95? 1 Peter written in Rome, by Peter the apostle?, "catholic" epistle

65-125 Period in which 4 Gospels, Acts, Revelations, and remaining epistles written
- Peter martyred before 1st Holy Gospel is written, 7 Popes before last
epistle is completed

65? Q written, (German:Quelle, meaning "source") a hypothetical Greek text used
in writing of Matthew and Luke
65-150 Didache: Instructions of the Apostles written
65-150 Dialogue of the Savior, Gospel of Peter
65-150 Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 1224 fragments: pub. 1914
65-150 Gospel of Thomas written, based on Q?, pub. 1959, Greek originals: Papyrus
Ox. 1,654-5
65-175 Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 840 fragments: pub. 1908
65-175 Papyrus Egerton 2 (Unknown Gospel) fragments: pub. 1935/87, in Greek
from Palestine, one of the oldest extant Christian texts (~175)
65-250 Papyrus Fayum (P. Vindob. G. 2325) fragments: pub. 1887
65-350 "Jewish-Christian Gospels": 7 fragments of Gospel of the Ebionites and 7
fragments of Gospel of the Hebrews in Greek; 36 fragments of Gospel of the
Nazarenes in Aramaic; [Ref: NT Apocrypha, W. Schneemelcher, vol. 1]
66-70 Roman-Jewish War: final destruction of Second Temple (Herod's Temple)
67 Peter martyred, crucified upside down in Rome
67-78 Pope Linus, 2nd Pope, succeeds Peter (Linus mentioned in 2 Tm 4,21)
67 General Vespasian of Rome conquers Galilee
68 Nero commits suicide, resurrects as "Nero redivivus", Rev's 666? (see 81)
68 Galba emperor of Rome (6/68-1/69)
68 Qumran (Essenes?) community destroyed by Rome, site of Dead Sea Scrolls
found in 1949
69 Otho emperor of Rome (1/69-4/69)
69 Vitellius emperor of Rome (6/69-12/69)
69 Flavian Dynasty of Rome (Vespian, Titus, Domitian)
69-79 Vespian emperor of Rome, quells unrest in Rome and Jerusalem
70 Collapse of Jewish self-government in Judea and destruction of the Temple in
70 Gospel according to Mark written in Rome, by Peter's interpreter? (1 Peter
5,13), original ending apparently lost, endings added c 400
70? "Signs Gospel" written, hypothetical Greek text used in Gospel of John to
prove Jesus is the Messiah
70-640 Sanhedrin (High Court) period of Judaism, rise of house of Hillel
75-90 Gospel according to Luke written, based on Mark and Q
75-90 Acts of the Apostles written, same author as Gospel according to Luke
79-81 Titus emperor of Rome, eldest son of Vespasian
79-91 Pope Anacletus, 3rd Pope, known as "blameless" (as in Titus 1,7?)
79 Mt Vesuvius, volcano overlooking Naples Bay, erupts, engulfs Pompeii
80-85 Gospel according to Matthew written, based on Mark and Q, most popular in
early Church
81-96 Domitian emperor of Rome, son of Vespasian, "Nero redivivus?" (see 68)
81-96 Revelations written, by John (son of Zebedee) and/or a disciple of his
90-100 1 John written, by author(s) of 4th gospel, "catholic" epistle
90-100 2,3 John written, by "elder", disciple of John (son of Zebedee)?, "catholic"
90-100 Gospel according to John written, by John (son of Zebedee) and others, only
eyewitness to Jesus?, disciple Jesus loved?, Gnostic?
90? Josephus claims exactly 22 Jewish (OT) books: 5 Law, 13 History, 4 Hymns
91-101 Pope Clement I, 4th Pope, (mentioned in Phil 4,3), wrote letter to Corinth in
95 called "1 Clement"
94 "Jewish Antiquities", by Josephus in Aramaic, trans. to Grk., Testimonium
Flavianum: {At this time there appeared Jesus, a wise man. For he was a
doer of startling deeds, a teacher of people who receive the truth with
pleasure. And he gained a following both among many Jews and among many
of Greek origin. And when Pilate, because of an accusation made by the
leading men among us, condemned him to the cross, those who had loved him
previously did not cease to do so. And up until this very day the tribe of
Christians (named after him) has not died out.} [JA18.3.3 Meier redaction,
Marginal Jew, p.61]
96? Hebrews written, by ?
96-98 Nerva emperor of Rome
98-116 Trajan emperor of Rome, Roman empire reaches maximum size
100? Odes of Solomon, written in Greek or Syriac, ref by John? (Apocrypha)
100? Epistle of Barnabas, Christian exegesis of LXX (AF = Apostolic Fathers)
100? 2 Clement, an old sermon but not by Clement (AF = Apostolic Fathers)
100? 2 Esdras (Vg:4 Esdras), Hebrew?, claims 24 OT books (Vulgate & Peshitta)
100? Apocalypse of Baruch (2 Baruch:Syriac, 3 Baruch:Greek) (Peshitta)
100? Paralipomena of Jeremiah (4 Baruch), written in Hebrew (Ethiopic Bible)
100? Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, Aramaic and Hebrew fragments found
at Qumran Caves 1,4 (Armenian Bible)
100? Jude written, probably by doubting relative of Jesus (Mark 6,3), rejected by
some early Christians due to its reference to apocryphal Book of Enoch
(v14), "catholic" epistle
100-125? 2 Peter written, by ?, not accepted into canon until early 400s, drew upon
Epistle of Jude, "catholic" epistle
100-150 Secret Book (Apocryphon) of James, Gospel of Mary Magdalene, Infancy
Gospels of Thomas and James, Secret Gospel (of Mark) (Complete Gospels)
101-109 Pope Evaristus, 5th Pope
109-116 Pope Alexander, 6th Pope
110? Letter of Polycarp to the Philippians, written by Polycarp (160) (AF)
110? "Letters of Ignatius", bishop of Antioch, martyred in Rome, his letters were
subjected to heavy Christian forgery esp. 4th cent. (Apostolic Fathers)
116-125 Pope Sixtus I, 7th Pope
117-138 Hadrian emperor of Rome, builds wall across Britain

125-350 Period of Christianity during which the first Bible was assembled - Christians
are fiercely persecuted and then finally tolerated by the Roman Empire, Great
Plague in Rome

125-136 Pope Telesphorus, 8th Pope, martyred
125? Papyrus 52: oldest extant NT fragment, p.1935, parts of Jn18:31-33,37-38
125? Shepherd of Hermas, written in Rome (AF = Apostolic Fathers)
130-200 "Christian Apologists" writings against Roman Paganism by: Justin Martyr
(165), Athenagoras (180?), Aristides (145?), Theophilus of Antioch (185?),
Tatian (170), Quadratus (130?), Melito of Sardis (180?), Apollinaris of
Hierapolis (180?), also Epistle to Diognetus in Apostolic Fathers
130? "Gospel of Basilides", a 24 book commentary?, lost
130? Papias, bishop of Hierapolis in Asia Minor, wrote: "Expositions of the Sayings
of the Lord", lost, widely quoted, see Eusebius (340) (AF)
130? Aquila of Pontus, Roman convert to Christianity then to Judaism, student of
Rabban Gamaliel, compiled literal Greek OT translation in Jabneh (Jamnia)
132-135 Bar Kokhba Revolt: final Jewish revolt, Judea and Jerusalem erased from
maps, all of southern Syria renamed Palestine (coined by Herodotus)
138-161 Antoninus Pius emperor of Rome
138-142 Pope Hyginus, 9th Pope
140 Letters of Marcion, produces his own canon without OT and using only a
heavily edited Luke + 10 Pauline Epistles, cites "Western" Gospel text-type
140? Apocalypse of Peter, written in Greek [NT Apocrypha,Schneemelcher,v.2]
142-155 Pope Pius I, 10th Pope
150? Gospel of the Egyptians, Coptic translation of orig. Greek (Nag Hammadi)
150? "Western Revisor" adds/subtracts from original Acts to produce "Western"
version which is 10% larger and found in Papyrus P29,38,48 and Codex
Bezae (D)
150? Papyrus Chester Beatty 6: R963, Greek Num 5:12-36:13, Deut 1:20-34:12
155-166 Pope Anicetus, 11th Pope
160? Polycarp, bishop of Smyrna, martyred at age 86: "Let. to Philip." (110)
160? Martyrdom of Polycarp, in Greek (Apostolic Fathers, ISBN:0-8010-5676-4)
161-180 Marcus Aurelius emperor of Rome
164-180 Great Plague in Roman Empire
166-174 Pope Soter, 12th Pope, moved Easter from Nisan 14 to following Sunday
170 Letters of Irenaeus, bishop of Lyons, cites "Western" Gospel text-type
170 Christian council on Montanist sect in Asia Minor
170 Letters of Dionysius, bishop of Corinth, claims Christians were changing and
faking his own letters just as [he knew] they had changed the Gospels
170 Tatian produces "Diatessaron" (Harmony) by blending 4 "Western" text-type
Gospels into 1
170? Symmachus, an Ebionite, writes an entirely new Greek OT translation
174-189 Pope Eleutherius, 13th Pope
175? Acts of Paul (inc. 3 Cor.), in Greek [NT Apocrypha,Schneemelcher,v.2]
180-192 Commodus emperor of Rome
185-350 Canon Muratorian, 1st extant for NT?, written in Rome by Hippolytus?,
excludes Hebrews, James, 1-2 Peter, 3 John; includes Wisdom of Solomon,
Apocalypse of Peter
189-198 Pope Victor I, 1st Latin Pope, 14th Pope, excommunicated Eastern churches
that continued to observe Easter on Nisan 14 "Quartodeciman", (see 166,
190 Christian council to determine "official" date of Easter
193-211 Septimius Severus emperor of Rome
197 Writings of Apollonius, uses the term "catholic" in reference to 1 John
198-217 Pope Zephyrinus, 15th Pope
200 Bishop of Antioch notes Gospel of Peter (see 65?) being used in Cilicia
200? Papyrus 66: 2nd Bodmer, John, 1956, "Alexandrian/Western" text-types:
Jn 1:1-6:11,35-7:52;8:12-14:26,29-30;15:2-26;16:2-4,6-7,10-
200? Papyrus 75: Bodmer 14-15, Luke & John, earliest extant Luke, ~Vaticanus;
17:15,19-18:18; 22:4-24:53; Jn1:1-7:52;8:12-11:45,48-57;12:3-
200? Papyrus 46: 2nd Chester Beatty, "Alexandrian" text-type: Rm5:17-6:3,5-
200? Papyrus 32: J. Rylands Library: Titus 1:11-15;2:3-8
200? Papyrus 64 (+67): Mt3:9,15;5:20-22,25-28;26:7-8,10,14-15,22-23,31-
200? Old Syriac (Aramaic) Gospels, Syr(s) & Syr(c), of "Western" text-type
200? Latin Bible translations begun in Carthage?, originals no longer extant
200? Sahidic Coptic cop(sa) Bible translations written in Alexendria
212-217 Geta then Caracalla emperors of Rome
217-236 Anti-Pope Hippolytus, bishop of Rome, "Logos" sect, 1st Anti-Pope
(illegitimate claimants of or pretenders to the papal throne)
217-222 Pope Callistus I, 16th Pope
218-222 Heliogabalus emperor of Rome
220 Goths invade Asia Minor and Balkans
220? Clement of Alexandria, b.150?, bishop, cites "Alexandrian" NT text-type &
Secret Gospel of Mark & Gospel of the Egyptians; wrote: "Exhortations to the
Greeks";"Rich Man's Salutation";"To the Newly Baptized"; (Loeb Classics)
222-230 Pope Urban I, 17th Pope
222-235 Alexandar Severus emperor of Rome
223? Tertullian, wr: "de Spectaculis" (Latin): v30.6 cites rumor Jesus son of
prostitute, coined "New Testament", cites "Western" Gospel text-type (Loeb)
225? Papyrus 45: 1st Chester Beatty, Gospels (Caesarean), Acts (Alexandrian):
Mt20:24-32;21:13-19;25:41-26:39; Mk4:36-40;5:15-26,38-6:3,16-
25,36-50;7:3-15 ,25-8:1,10-26,34-9:9,18-31;11:27-12:1,5-8,13-
19,24-28; Lk6:31-41,45-7:7;9:26 -41,45-10:1,6-22,26-11:1,6-25,28-
46,50-12:12,18-37,42-13:1,6-24,29-14:10,17-33; Jn10:7-25,30-
11:10,18-36,42-57; Ac4:27-36;5:10-21,30-39;6:7-7:2,10-21,32-
225? Papyrus 967: Chester Beatty 9, Greek Ezekiel 11:25-end, ~Codex Vaticanus
230-236 Pope Pontian, 18th Pope
230-250 Christian council of Rome, Demetrius bishop of Alex. condemns Origen who in
248 cited a rumor recorded by Celsus that "Jesus fabricated the account of
his birth from a virgin. In reality, Jesus' mother was driven out by the
carpenter husband to whom she was betrothed because she had committed
adultery with a [Roman] soldier named Panthera [thus the ben Pantere of
Jewish sources]. Left poor and homeless, she gave birth to Jesus in secret.
Jesus later spent time in Egypt, where he hired himself out as a laborer,
learned magic, and so came to claim the title of God." [CC1.28-32, Marginal
Jew, Meier, p. 223]
236-238 Maximus emperor of Rome, ends Christian schism in Rome by deporting Pope
Pontian and anti-Pope Hippolytus to Sardinia where they soon die
236-237 Pope Anterus, 19th Pope
237-250 Pope Fabian, 20th Pope
238-244 Gordian I, II, Balbinus, Pupienus, Gordian III emperors of Rome
240-250 Christian council of Carthage
244-249 Philip the Arabian emperor of Rome
249-251 Decius emperor of Rome
249 Rome celebrates 1000th anniversary
250 Rome steps up persecution of Christians, martyrs revered as saints
250 Letters of Methodius, Pistis Sophia, Porphyry Tyrius; church fathers
250? Mandeans (followers of John the Baptist) begin compilation of "Ginza"
250? Papyrus 72: Bodmer 5-11+, pub. 1959, "Alexandrian" text-type: Nativity of
Mary; 3Cor; Odes of Solomon 11; Jude 1-25; Melito's Homily on Passover;
Hymn fragment; Apology of Phileas; Ps33,34; 1Pt1:1-5:14; 2Pt1:1-3:18;
250? Papyrus Chester Beatty: #5:R962: Gn8:13-9:2,24:13-46:33,Enoch91-105;
#7: I8:18-19:13,38:14-45:5,54:1=60:22; #8: Jr4:30-5:24; #10: Dn1-
251-253 Gallus emperor of Rome
251-253 Pope Cornelius, 21st Pope
251-258 Anti-Pope Novatian, decreed no forgiveness for sins after baptism
253-260 Valerian emperor of Rome, executes all Bishops, Priests, and Deacons
253-254 Pope Lucius I, 22nd Pope
254 Letters of Origen, Jesus and God one substance, adopted at Council of Nicaea
in 325, compiled "Hexapla": 6 versions of LXX side by side: Hebrew, Hebrew
transliterated in Greek, Aquila's Greek trans., Symmachus' Greek trans.,
Origen's revised LXX Greek trans., Theodotion's revised LXX; also
Quinta/Sexta/Septima trans., Tetragrammaton in square Hebrew script;
cites "Alexandrian" & "Caesarean" NT text-types; Eusebius claimed Origen
castrated himself for Christ due to Mt19:12 [EH6.8.1-3]
254-257 Pope Steven I, 23rd Pope, major schism over rebaptizing heretics and
257-258 Pope Sixtus II, 24th Pope, martyred
257 Visigoths and Ostrogoths invade Black Sea area, Franks invade Spain
258 Letters of Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage, cites "Western" NT text-type, claims
Christians are freely forging his letters to discredit him
260-268 Gallienus emperor of Rome, reverses Valerian, restores Roman Church
260-268 Pope Dionysius, 25th Pope, rebuilds Roman Church after Valerian's massacre
264-268 Christian council on Paul of Samosata, Bishop of Antioch, founder of
Adoptionism (Jesus was human until Holy Spirit descended at his baptism)
264? Letters of Dionysius, bishop of Alexandria, b.190?
268 Goths sack Athens, Sparta, Corinth
268-270 Claudius II emperor of Rome
269-274 Pope Felix I, 26th Pope
270-275 Aurelian emperor of Rome
275-283 Pope Eutychian, 27th Pope, decreed that only beans and grapes be blessed at
275? Papyrus 47: 3rd Chester Beatty, ~Sinaiticus, Rv9:10-11:3,5-16:15,17-
276-282 Marcus Aurelius Probus emperor of Rome
276 Mani, b.215, crucified, founder of Manichaean Christian sect in Persia
283-296 Pope Gaius, 28th Pope
284-305 Diocletian emperor of Rome, notorius persecuter of Christians
285 Roman empire partitioned into Western and Eastern empires
290-345 St Pachomius establishes 1st monastery in Egypt
296-304 Pope Marcellinus, 29th Pope, apostate, offered pagan sacrifices for
300? Bohairic Coptic cop(bo) Bible translations written in Alexandria
300? Hesychius of Alex., martyr, translates Hebrew OT to Greek, lost [Jerome]
300? Papyrus Berlin Codex of Greek Genesis; Papyrus Bodmer 24 of Greek Psalms;
Codex Freer of Greek Minor Prophets; all published in 1927
300? other 3rd century NT witnesses: P1:Mt1:1-9,12,14-20 P4:Lk1:58-59,62-
2:1, 6-7;3:8-4:2,29-32,34-35;5:3-8,30-6:16 P5:Jn1:23-31,33-
40;16:14-30;20:11-17, 19-20,22-25 P9:1Jn4:11-12,14-17 P12:Hb1:1
P15:1Cr7:18-8:4 P20:Jm2:19-3:9 P22:Jn15:25-16:2,21-32
P23:Jm1:10-12,15-18 P27:Rm8:12-22,24-27,33-9:3,5-9 P28:Jn6:8-
12,17-22 P29:Ac26:7-8,20 P30:1Th4:12-13,16-17;5:3,8-10,12-18,25-
28;2Th1:1-2 P38:Ac18:27-19:6,12-16 P39:Jn8:14-22 P40:Rm1:24-
27,31-2:3;3:21-4:8;6:4-5:16;9:16-17:27 P48:Ac23:11-17,23-29
P49:Ep4:16-29,31-5:13 P53:Mt26:29-40;Ac9:33-10:1 P65:1Th1:3-
2:1,6-13 P69:Lk22:41,45-48,58-61 P70:Mt2:13-16,22-3:1;11:26-
27;12:4-5;24:3-6,12-15 P80:Jn3:34 P87:Pm13-15,24-25
#0171:Mt10:17-23,25-32;Lk22:44-56,61-64 #0189:Ac5:3-21
#0220:Rm4:23-5:3,8-13 #0212(Diatessaron):Mt27:56-57;Mk15:40-
303-311 Last persecution of Christians in Rome
304 Letters of Victor, bishop of Pettau
306-337 Emperor Constantine the Great, convert to Christianity
306-312 Maxentius emperor of Western Roman Empire
306-308 Pope Marcellus I, 30th Pope, tried removing prior Pope Marcellinus from
official records for apostasy, exiled from Rome by Maxentius for disturbing
the peace
310 Pope Eusebius, 31st Pope, deported to Sicily with anti-Pope Heraclius by
311-314 Pope Miltiades, 32nd Pope, Constantine gives Fausta's palace as papal
312 Lucian, founded Exegetical School of Antioch, martyred
312 Constantine defeats Maxentius at Milvian Bridge, reunites Roman Empire
313 Edict of Milan, Constantine establishes toleration of Christianity
313 Miltiades excommunicates Donatus for requiring rebaptism of apostates
314-335 Pope Silvester I, 33rd Pope
314 Council of Arles, called by Constantine against Donatist (Donatus) schism
317 Letters of Lactantius, early Christian church father
321 Constantine decrees Sunday as offical Roman-Christian day of rest
325 Council of Nicaea, called by Constantine against Arianism (336), called 1st
great Christian council by Jerome, 1st ecumenical, 318 bishops attend,
Nicaean Creed
325? Fayyumic Coptic cop(mf) translation fragment of John 6:11-15:11
330 Old Saint Peter's Basilica dedicated by Constantine, located over the
traditional burial site of Saint Peter the Apostle in Rome on Vatican Hill
331 Seat of Roman Empire moved to Constantinople (formally Byzantium)
336-337 Pope Mark, 34th Pope
336 Arius, Greek theologian - Arianism (Jesus was a created being)
337-350 Roman empire splits again, Constans emperor of West until 350
337-361 Roman empire splits again, Constantius emperor of East until 361
337-352 Pope Julius I, 35th Pope
338 Jewish calendar modified with different year lengths to correct to Solar
340? Eusebius of Caesarea (260-340), theologian & church historian, cites
"Caesarean" NT text-type, wrote: "Ecclesiastical History" (EH); Loeb
Classics: 2 volumes {Papias, bishop of Hierapolis (130?), claims that John
the Elder, a disciple of Jesus, told him that Mark "was the interpreter of
Peter and wrote down carefully what he remembered of what had been said
or done by the Lord, but not in the right order." Also claims that "Matthew
composed the sayings in Hebrew [more likely Aramaic] and each one
translated them as he could."} [Ref: EH3.39.15, Unauthorized Version, Fox,
p.126-127] Eusebius' NT Canon: Recognized Books: 4 Holy Gospels, Acts, 14
Pauline Epistles, 1Jn, 1Pt; Disputed Books: Rev, James, Jude, 2Pt, 2-3Jn,
Acts of Paul, Hermas, Apocalypse of Peter, Barnabas, Didache, Gospel of the
Hebrews; Rejected Books: Gospels of Peter, Thomas, Matthias, Acts of
Andrew, John ... [EH3.25], used the term "catholic" to refer to all seven
epistles - James; 1,2,3 John; 1,2 Peter; Jude

350-400 Period of time between the 1st Christian Bible and the 1st Western Christian
Bible, during which the books contained in Bibles varied

350 Letters of Adamantius, Firmicus Maternus; early Christian church fathers
350? Codex Sinaiticus (S or ): earliest Christian Bible, (LXX - 2-
3Maccabees - Psalms of Solomon - Ps151 + 27NT + Barnabas + Hermas),
missing Hermas31.7-end; of "Alexandrian" text-type: most accurate text-
350? Codex Vaticanus (B): earliest Christian Bible (LXX - 1-4Maccabees - Psalms
of Solomon - Ps151 + 27NT), missing Gn1-46:28, Ps105:27-137:6, 1Tm-
Phm, Heb9:14-end; of "Alexandrian" text-type: most accurate text-type
350? Papyrus Antinoopolis of Book of Proverbs in Greek, published in 1950
350? Papyrus Chester Beatty: #4:R961: Greek Gn9:1-44:22; #11: Greek
Sir36:28- 37:22,46:6-47:2; #12: Greek Enoch93:12-13,94:7-8,97:6-
350? Papyrus Bodmer 45-46: Greek Susanna, Daniel 1:1-20 (Theodotion's LXX)
350? Canon Cheltenham: 24NT books (excludes James, Jude, Hebrews)
350? Akhmimic cop(ac) & Sub-Akhmimic cop(ac2) Coptic translations of John
350? Ulfilas, apostle to the Goths (Germans), translates Greek NT to Gothic
352-366 Pope Liberius, 36th Pope
354-430 St. Augustine, Latin Bishop considered the founder of formalized Christian
theology, church father
355-365 Anti-Pope Felix II, Arianism (336), supported by Constantius II
360 Huns invade Europe, scrolls begin to be replaced by books (Codex)
361-363 Julian the Apostate emperor of East, attempts to revive Paganism
363 Council of Laodicea names 26 NT books (excludes Revelations)
363 Letters of Marius Victorinus, Acacius of Caesarea; early church fathers
364 Council of Laodicea decrees death for Christians who keep 7th day Sabbath
366-384 Pope Damasus I, 37th Pope, hired thugs to massacre rival Ursinians
366-367 Anti-Pope Ursinus, leader of supporters of former Pope Liberius
367 Athanasias, bishop of Alexandria, first citing of modern 27 NT canon
367 Letters of Hilary of Poitiers, Lucifer of Calaris; early church fathers
367 Athanasius, d.373, bishop of Alexandria, first cite of modern 27NT canon
370 Epiphanius, bishop of Salamis, Cyprus; cites 27NT + Wisdom of Solomon
370 Doctrine of Addai at Edessa proclaims 17 book NT canon using Diatessaron
(instead of the 4 Gospels) + Acts + 15 Pauline Epistles (inc. 3 Corinthians)
373 Letters of Ephraem Syrus, cites "Western" Acts text-type
378 Letters of Titus of Bostra, Ambrosiaster, Priscillian; church fathers
379-395 Theodosius the Great, last emperor of the united empire
380 Feb 27, Christianity declared official state religion by Theodosius
381 Council of Theodosius at Constantinople, 2nd ecumenical, Jesus had true
human soul
382-384 Pope Damasus I has Jerome revise and unify Latin Bibles
383 Roman legions begin to evacuate Britain
384 Jerome presents Pope Damasus I with new Latin Gospels, originals lost
384-399 Pope Siricius, 38th Pope, criticized Jerome
390 Apollinaris of Laodicea, Jesus had human body but divine spirit
390 Letters of Tyconius, Gregory of Nyssa, Didymus of Alex.; church fathers
391? Ammianus Marcellinus, b.330, Christian historian, wrote: "Res gestae"
393,397 Augustine's Councils, cites exactly 27 NT books (see 354)
395 Theodosius prohibits practice of Pagan rituals including Olympic Games
395 Ausonius, b.310?, Christian governor of Gaul; Loeb Classics 2v (Latin)
396 Alaric, king of the Visigoths, plunders Athens
397 Ambrose, b.333?, bishop & governor of Milan, wrote: "de Fide" ...
399-401 Pope Anastasius I, 39th Pope

400-484 Era between 1st Western Christian Bible and the Great Schism - Christian
doctrine is formed, Roman empire ends

400? Vulgate Bible, by Jerome?, (340?-420) originals lost, Vulgate Latin text
becomes standard Western Christian Bible
400? Jerome cites "expanded" ending in Mark after Mark 16,14
400? Jerome adds Pericope of the Adultress (John 7,53-8,11)
400? Codex Vercellensis it(a): Latin Gospels, of "European" text-type
400? Peshitta Bible, Syriac (Aramaic) Vulgate, Syr(p), OT + 22 NT, excludes:
2Pt, 2-3Jn, Jude, Rev; Peshitta becomes standard Syrian Christian Bible
400? Codex Bobiensis it(k): ~half of Mt/Mk in Latin, "African" (Carthage) text-
type, has "shorter" ending of Mark after Mk16:8
401-417 Pope Innocent I, 40th Pope, decreed Roman custom the norm for Christianity
401 Visigoths invade Italy
403 Letters of Epiphanius of Constantia, John Chrysostom; church fathers
410 Visigoths sack Rome under king Alaric
414 Letters of Nicetas of Remesiana, Orosius; early Christian church fathers
415 Bishop Cyril of Alex. (444) expels Jews, kills Hypatia with oyster shells
416 Visigoths take Spain
417-418 Pope Zosimus, 41st Pope
418-422 Pope Boniface I, 42nd Pope
418-419 Anti-Pope Eulalius
418 Franks take Gaul
420 St. Jerome, (S.E. Hieronymus), b.340?, Latin scholar; (Loeb Classics)
422-432 Pope Celestine I, 43rd Pope
423 Theodoret, bishop of Cyrrhus, notes Tatian's Harmony (170) in heavy use
431 Council of Ephesus, 3rd ecumenical, decreed Mary the Mother of God
429 Picts and Scots expelled from southern England by Anglo-Saxon-Jutes
430 St. Augustine, b.354, origin of "Original Sin," church father & philosopher,
wrote: "The City of God", "Confessions"; Loeb Classics 10 v. (Latin)
430 Letters of Marcus Eremita, Nilus of Ancyra; Christian church fathers
431 Syrian Christianity splits into East (Nestorian-disagreed with Council of
Ephesus) and West (Jacobites)
432 St Patrick begins mission in Ireland
432-440 Pope Sixtus III, 44th Pope
433-453 Attila the Hun, "Scourge of the Gods"
440-461 Pope Leo I, 45th Pope
444 Letters of Cyril of Alexandria, Arnobius the Younger; church fathers
450 Mark's Resurrection of Jesus added to Bible (Mark 16, 9-20)
450? Codex Alexandrinus (A): (LXX - 1-2Maccabees + 14_Church_Odes + 27NT +
1-2Clement), missing 1K12:17-14:9, Ps49:20-79:11, Psalms of Solomon,
Mt1-25:6, Jn6:50-8:52, 2Cr4:13-12:6, 1Clement57.7-63.4,
2Clement12.5b-end; of "Alexandrian" text-type: most accurate text-type
450? Codex Bezae (D): Greek/Latin Gospels + Acts; Codex Washingtonianus (W):
Greek Gospels; both of "Western" text-type: "fondness for paraphrase"
450? Codex Ephraemi Syri rescriptus (C): Greek LXX + 27NT, many gaps
450? Codex Marchalianus (Q): Greek LXX + Luke + John, many gaps
450? Codex Ambrosianus (F): Greek Genesis to Joshua
450? Codex Freer: Greek Deuteronomy and Joshua
450? Codex Colberto-Sarravianus: Origen's Greek Hexapla LXX of Gen-Judg
450? Codex Palatinus it(e): Latin Gospels, "African" (Carthage) text-type
450? Codex Veronensis it(b): Latin Gospels, "European/Vulgate" text-type
450? Syr(pal), Palestinian Syriac (Aramaic) Gospels, of "Caesarean" text-type
450? std. Aramaic Targums, T. Onkelos of Torah, T. Jonathan of Prophets
451 Council of Chalcedon, 4th ecumenical, declared Jesus is 2 natures, both
human and divine in one, a compromise solution of Jesus god/man schisms
451 Nestorius of Constantinople, Nestorians: Mary was *not* "Mother of God"
451 Letters of Hesychius, Quodvultdeus; early Christian church fathers
454 Eutyches of Constantinople, Monophysites: Jesus was divine but not human
455 Vandals sack Rome
457-474 Pope Leo I, 46th Pope, becomes emperor of remaining (eastern) Roman
461-468 Pope Hilarus, 47th Pope
463 Letters of Prosper of Aquitaine, early Christian church father
466 Letters of Shenute of Atripe, Theodoret of Cyrrhus; early church fathers
468-483 Pope Simplicius, 48th Pope
474-491 Zeno, eastern Roman emperor
476 Official end of western Roman empire, last emperor Romulus Augustulus
480-547 St. Benedict, founded the Benedictines
483-492 Pope Felix III (II), 49th Pope

484-640 Period between Great Schism and the destruction of the Library of Alexendria
- After the end of the Roman Empire, the Catholic Church sees a period of
turmoil and division, Europe's population "halved" by plague, great
earthquakes occur

484-519 Acacian schism, over "Henoticon" divides Eastern (Greek) and Western
(Roman) churches. Photinus, deacon of Thessalonica, was of the Greek
church and held to the Acacian heresy, which denied the divine paternity of
Christ. Photinus persuaded emperor Anastasius I to accept the Acacian
484 Letters of Vigilius of Thapsus, early Christian church father
489 Zeno destroys Nestorian (451) school at Edessa, erects Church of St Simeon
491 Armenian Church seceds from East (Byzantium) and West (Rome) churches
491-518 Anastasius I eastern Roman emperor
492-496 Pope Gelasius I, 50th Pope, "Vicar of Christ" is first used as another title
496-498 Pope Anastasius II
498 Nestorians (451) settle in Nisibis, Persia
498-514 Pope Symmachus
514-523 Pope Hormisdas
523-526 Pope John I, martyr
498-506 Anti-Pope Lawrence, Lawrencian schism
500 Incense introduced in Christian church service, first plans of Vatican
500? Codex Sangallensis vg: earliest extant Latin Vulgate, Gospels
500? Codex Argenteus (got): earliest nearly complete Gothic (German), Gospels
500? Codex Cottonianus: Greek Genesis
502 Narsai of Mealletha, Syrian poet, heads Nestorian school in Nisibis(498)
518-527 Justin I: emperor of Byzantine (former eastern Roman) empire
524 Boethius, b.480?, Roman Christian philosopher, wrote: "Theological
Tractates", "Consolation of Philosophy"; (Loeb Classics) (Latin)
525 Dionysius Exiguus sets Christian calendar (a.d.) & Jesus' birth @ 23 Dec 1AD
526 Earthquake in Antioch kills 250,000
526-530 Pope Felix IV (III)
527-565 Justinian the Great, Byzantine emperor
527 Letters of Fulgentius, early Christian church father
529 Justinian closes 1000yr Athen's School of Philosophy, declared Paganistic
530-532 Pope Boniface II
530 Anti-Pope Dioscorus
532-535 Pope John II
533 N. Africa captured by Belisarius from Vandals, becomes Byzantine province
534-870 Malta becomes Byzantine province
535-536 Pope Agapitus I
536-537 Pope Silverius, martyr
537-555 Pope Vigilius, involved in death of Pope Silverius, conspired with Justinian
and Theodora, excommunicated by N. African bishops in 550
539-562 War between Byzantine empire and Persia
542 Plague in Constantinople from Egyptian and Syrian rats, spreads to Europe
543 Justinian condemns Origen (254), disastrous earthquakes hit the world
541-546 Codex Fuldensis vg(F): Latin Vulgate, 27NT + Epistle to Laodiceans
544 Justinian condemns the "3 Chapters" of Theodore of Mopsuestia (d.428) and
other writings of "2-natures" Christology of Council of Chalcedon (451)
547 Pope Vigilius issues "Iudicatum" supporting Justinian's anti-"2-natures"
547 Plague reaches Britain
548 Letters of Apringius Pacensis, early Christian church father
550-1453 Medieval Greek of Constantinople (Byzantium) becomes standard Greek
550 Byzantine Greek Text, standard Eastern Bible, much smoothing & conflation
550 St. David converts Wales to Christianity, crucifix becomes Christian icon
550? Codex Claromontanus (Dp): Greek/Latin Pauline Epistles + Canon of ~250AD
lists 27NT+Barnabas+Hermas+Acts_of_Paul+Apocalypse_of_Peter;
"Western" type
550? Codex Mediolanensis vg(M): Latin Vulgate Gospels
550? Codex Veronensis: Greek & Old Latin Psalms
555 2nd Council of Constantinople, 5th ecumenical, called by Justinian
556-561 Pope Pelagius I, selected by Justinian, endorsed "Iudicatum" (547)
561-574 Pope John III, authorized by Justinian
565-578 Justin II, Byzantine emperor
567 Letters of Primasius, Cassiodorus; early Christian church fathers
572-628 War between Byzantine empire and Persia
575-579 Pope Benedict I, authorized by Justin II,
578-582 Tiberius II, Byzantine emperor
579-590 Pope Pelagius II, died of plague
582-602 Maurice, Byzantine emperor
587 Visigoths of Spain converted to Christianity
589 Lombards of Italy converted to Christianity
590 Plague in Rome
590-604 Pope Gregory I, commanded that a way be found to collect and preserve the
singing of the Benedictine monks of Santo Domingo de Silos (now known as
Gregorian Chant)
594 End of plague which began in 542 and "halved" the population of Europe!
596 St. Augustine of Canterbury sent to convert Britain to Christianity
600? Codex Harleianus vg(Z): Latin Vulgate Gospels
600? Codex Philoxenian/Harclean Syr(ph/h): Syriac 27NT, "Western" text-type
602-610 Phocas, Byzantine emperor after killing Maurice
604-606 Pope Sabinian, authorized by Phocas
606-607 Pope Boniface III, authorized by Phocas
607-615 Pope Boniface IV, authorized by Phocas
609 Roman Pantheon (a Pagan Temple) renamed Church of Santa Maria Rotonda
610-641 Heraclius, Byzantine emperor after killing Phocas
611 Mohammed's reported vision of Allahon Mount Hira
614 Persians take Damascas and Jerusalem and "Holy Cross of Christ"
615 earliest records of some of Mohammed's teachings
615-618 Pope Deusdedit
619-625 Pope Boniface V, authorized by Heraclius
622-680 Monothelite controversy: condemned at 6th Ecum. Council of Constantinople
622 first year in Muslim calendar, The Hegira, 1a.h., (a.h. = anno hegirae)
624 Mohammed marries Aisha, daughter of Abu Bekr
625 Paulinus of Rome comes to convert Northumbria to Christianity
625-638 Pope Honorius I
625 Mohammed begins dictation of Qur'an (Koran) to his scribe
626 King Edwin of Northumbria founds Edinburgh and begins Christianization
627 Byzantines defeat Persians at Nineveh
628 Emperor Heraclius wins back "Cross of Christ" from Persians
628 Mohammed captures Mecca & writes to rulers of the world explaining Islam
629 Heraclius recovers Jerusalem from Persians
629 Pope Honorius I sides with Emperor Heraclius and Monothelites (622)
632 Mohammed, b. 570?, Arab prophet and founder of Islam
632 East Anglia Christianized
632 Abu Bekr, first Islamic Caliph, seat at Medina
634 Omar I, 2d Caliph, takes Syria/Persia/Egypt;defeats Heraclius in Holy War
635 Christianization of Wessex
635-750 Damascus becomes capital of Islamic Caliphs
636 Southern Irish Church submits to Roman Catholicism
637 Jerusalem captured by Islam
638 Emp. Heraclius' "Ecthesis", decrees Christ of one nature: "Monothelites"
640 Pope Severinus
640 Library of Alexandria, "The Center of Western Culture," with 300,000
ancient papyrus scrolls, is completely distroyed.

640-1380 Period between destruction of Library of Alexandria and the first complete
English translation of the Bible

640-642 Pope John IV
642-649 Pope Theodore I
649-654 Pope Martin I, martyr
654-657 Pope Eugene I
657-673 Pope Vitalian
673-676 Pope Adeodatus II
676-678 Pope Donus
678-682 Pope Agatho
682-684 Pope Leo II
684-685 Pope Benedict II
685-686 Pope John V
686-687 Pope Conon
687 Anti-Pope Theodore
687 Anti-Pope Paschal
687-701 Pope Sergius I
690? Earliest Bible translations into England's vernacular, continued work by Bede
and others from this point forward
701-705 Pope John VI
705-708 Pope John VII
708 Pope Sisinnius
708-715 Pope Constantine
715-731 Pope Gregory II
731-741 Pope Gregory III
741-752 Pope Zachary
750? Tower added to St Peter's Basilica at the front of the atrium
752-757 Pope Stephen II (III)
757-768 Pope Paul I
767 Anti-Pope Constantine
768 Anti-Pope Philip
768-772 Pope Stephen III (IV)
772-795 Pope Adrian I
795-816 Pope Leo III
816-817 Pope Stephen IV (V)
817-824 Pope Paschal I
824-827 Pope Eugene II
827 Pope Valentine
827-844 Pope Gregory IV
844 Anti-Pope John
844-847 Pope Sergius II
847-855 Pope Leo IV
850? King Alfred translation of several Bible books into English vernacular, also
done by Aldhelm and Aelfric
855-858 Pope Benedict III
855 Anti-Pope Anastasius
856 Earthquake in Corinth kills 45,000
858-867 Pope Nicholas I
867-872 Pope Adrian II
872-882 Pope John VII
882-884 Pope Marinus I
884-885 Pope Adrian III
885-891 Pope Stephen V (VI)
891-896 Pope Formosus
896 Pope Boniface VI
896-897 Pope Stephen VI (VII)
897 Pope Romanus
897-898 Pope Theodore II
898-900 Pope John IX
900-903 Pope Benedict IV
903-904 Pope Leo V
903 Anti-Pope Christopher
904-911 Pope Sergius III
911-913 Pope Anastasius III
913-914 Pope Landus
914-928 Pope John X
928 Pope Leo VI
928-931 Pope Stephen VII (VIII)
931-936 Pope John XI
936-939 Pope Leo VII
939-942 Pope Stephen VIII (IX)
942-946 Pope Marinus II
946-955 Pope Agapitus II
955-963 Pope John XII
963-964 Pope Leo VIII
964-965 Pope Benedict V
965-973 Pope John XIII
973-974 Pope Benedict VI
974 Anti-Pope Boniface VII
974-983 Pope Benedict VII
983-985 Pope John XIV
985-996 Pope John XV
996-999 Pope Gregory V
997 Anti-Pope John XVI
999-1003 Pope Sylvester II
1003-1004 Pope John XVII
1004-1009 Pope John XVIII
1009-1012 Pope Sergius IV
1012-1024 Pope Benedict VIII
1012 Anti-Pope Gregory
1024-1032 Pope John XIX
1032-1045 Pope Benedict IX
1045 Pope Sylvester III
1045 Pope Benedict IX
1045-1046 Pope Gregory VI
1046-1047 Pope Clement II
1047-1048 Pope Benedict IX
1048-1049 Pope Damasus II
1049-1055 Pope Leo IX
1054 Split between Eastern and Western churches formalized, Orthodox Church
1055-1057 Pope Victor II
1057-1059 Pope Stephen IX (X)
1057 Earthquake in Cilicia (Asia Minor) kills 60,000
1058 Anti-Pope Benedict X
1059-1061 Pope Nicholas II
1061-1073 Pope Alexender II
1061 Anti-Pope Honorius II
1073-1086 Gregory VII
1080 Anti-Pope Clement III
1086-1088 Pope Victor III
1088-1099 Pope Urban II
1095-1291 10 Crusades, 1st called by Pope Urban II, to restore Asia Minor to Byzantium
and conquer the Holy Land from the Turks
1099-1118 Pope Paschal II
1100 Anti-Pope Theodoric
1102 Anti-Pope Albert
1105 Anti-Pope Sylvester IV
1118-1119 Pope Gelasius II
1118 Anti-Pope Gregory VIII
1119-1124 Pope Callistus II
1124-1130 Pope Honorius II
1124 Anti-Pope Celestine II
1130-1143 Pope Innocent II
1130 Anti-Pope Anacletus II
1138 Anti-Pope Victor IV
1143-1144 Pope Celestine II
1144-1145 Pope Lucius II
1145-1153 Pope Eugene III
1153-1154 Pope Anastasius IV
1154-1159 Pope Adrian IV
1159-1181 Pope Alexander III
1159 Anti-Pope Victor IV
1164 Anti-Pope Paschal III
1168 Anti-Pope Callistus III
1179 Anti-Pope Innocent III
1181-1185 Pope Lucius III
1185-1187 Pope Urban III
1187 Pope Gregory VIII
1187-1191 Pope Clement III
1191 Pope Celestine III
1198-1216 Pope Innocent III
1206 Rosary is reportedly given to St. Dominic by an apparition of Mary
1215 Dominican order begun
1216-1227 Pope Honorius III
1223 Franciscan order begun
1225-1274 Thomas Aquinas, theologian and philosopher
1227-1241 Pope Gregory IX
1241-1243 Pope Celestine IV
1243-1254 Pope Innocent IV
1254-1261 Pope Alexander IV
1260 Date which a 1988 Vatican sponsered scientific study places the origin of the
Shroud of Turin
1261-1265 Pope Urban IV
1265-1271 Pope Clement IV
1271-1276 Pope Gregory X
1276 Pope Innocent V
1276 Pope Adrian V
1276-1277 Pope John XXI
1277-1294 Pope Nicholas IV
1294 Pope Celestine V
1294-1303 Pope Boniface VIII
1303-1305 Pope Benedict XI
1305-1316 Pope Clement V
1316-1334 Pope John XXII
1321? The Divine Comedy, by Dante Alighieri
1328 Anti-Pope Nicholas V
1334-1342 Pope Benedict XII
1342-1352 Pope Clement VI
1350? English begins to emerge as the national language of England
1350? Renaissance begins in Italy
1352-1362 Pope Innocent VI
1354 Earliest extant documentation stating the existance of the Shroud of Turin
1362-1370 Pope Urban V
1370-1378 Pope Gregory XI
1378-1389 Pope Urban VI
1378 Anti-Pope Clement VII

1380-1517 Period between the 1st complete English translation of the Bible and Martin
Luther's 95 Theses

1380-1382 John Wycliffe, eminant theologian at Oxford, makes NT (1380) and OT (with
help of Nicholas of Hereford) (1382) translations in English, 1st complete
translation to English, included deutercanonical books, preached against
abuses, expressed unorthodox views of the sacraments (Penance and
Eucharist), the use of relics, and against celibacy of the clergy
1384 John Purvey, follower of John Wycliffe, revises Wycliffe's translation
1389-1404 Pope Boniface IX
1390? Wycliffe's teachings condemned repeatedly in England
1394 Anti-Pope Benedict XIII
1404-1406 Pope Innocent VII
1406-1417 Pope Gregory XII
1408 Council of Oxford forbids translations of the Scriptures into the vernacular
unless and until they were fully approved by Church authority, sparked by
Wycliffite Bible, Sir Thomas More said: "It neither forbiddith the translations
to be read that were already well done of old before Wycliffe's days, nor
damneth his because it was new but because it was naught; nor prohibiteth
new to be made but provideth that they shall not be read if they be made
amiss till they be by good examination amended." ("A Dialogue against
1409 Anti-Pope Alexander V
1410 Anti-Pope John XXIII
1412-1431 St. Joan of Arc, French national heroine
1415 Council of Florence condemns all of Wycliffe's works, but the actual Bibles
continued to be used after having the heretical prologue removed, and were
possessed by both religious houses and those of the nobility and tacitly
accepted by Catholics
1417-1431 Pope Martin V
1431-1447 Pope Eugene IV
1439 Anti-Pope Felix V
1447-1455 Pope Nicholas V
1453 Byzantium succeeded by the Ottoman Empire
1455-1458 Pope Callistus III
1458-1464 Pope Pius II
1464-1471 Pope Paul II
1466-1536 Desiderius Erasmus, Dutch scholar, Greek NT used in many 16th century
1471-1484 Pope Sixtus IV
1473-1481 Sistine Chapel built, under supervision of Giovanni de Dolci
1478 Inquisition established by Pope Sixtus IV
1483-1546 Martin Luther, leader of Protestant reformation, preached that only faith
leads to salvation without mediation of clergy or good works, attacked
authority of the Pope, rejected priestly celibacy, recommended individual
study of the Bible (see 1517, 1522)
1484-1492 Pope Innocent VIII
1488-1569 Miles Coverdale, Augustinian friar who left the Order, repudiated
Catholicism, 1st Protestant Bishop of Exeter
1491-1556 Ignatius of Loyola, founded the Jesuit order (see 1534)
1492 Christopher Columbus's first voyage, discovers San Salvador - begins
Spanish colonization of the New World
1492-1503 Pope Alexander VI
1503 Pope Pius III
1503-1513 Pope Julius II
1505-1572 John Knox, Protestant reformer in Scotland (see 1560)
1506 Pope Julius II orders the Old St Peter's Basilica torn down and authorizes
Donato Bramante to plan a new structure, demolition completed in 1606
1508-1512 Michelangelo frescoes the Sistine Chapel's vaulted ceiling
1509-1547 Henry VIII ruler of England
1509-1564 John Calvin, preached predetermination, good conduct and success were signs
of election
1513-1522 Pope Leo X

1517-1994 Modern Era of Christianity - Luther, Calvin lay the seeds of modern
Protestantism, England breaks away from the Catholic Church

1517 95 Theses (Martin Luther)
1518-1532 St Terese of Avila
1520 Luther excommunicated
1522-1523 Pope Adrian VI
1522 Luther's German NT translation
1523-1534 Pope Clement VII
1524 South German peasant uprising, repressed with Luther's support, begins 1.5
century long religious wars
1525-1534 Tyndale's translation of the NT from Greek text of Erasmus (1466) compared
against the Vulgate and the Pentateuch from the Hebrew (1525) compared to
Vulgate and Luther's German version (1530), first printed edition, used as a
vehicle by Tyndale for bitter attacks on the Church, reflects influence of
Luther's NT of 1522 in rejecting "priest" for "elder", "church" for
1530 Augsburg Confession, Martin Luther founds the Lutheran Church
1531 Reported apparition of Mary at Guadalupe, Mexico, considered "worthy of
belief" by the Catholic Church
1531 Earthquake in Lisbon, Portugal kills 30,000
1534 Henry VIII breaks England away from the Catholic church, confiscates
monastic property, beginning of Episcopal Church
1534-1550 Pope Paul III
1534 Jesuit order founded by Lyola (1491-1556), helped reconvert large areas of
Poland, Hungary, and S. Germany and sent missionaries to the New World,
India, and China
1535-1537 Coverdale's Bible (see 1488), used Tyndale's (1525) translation along with
Latin and German versions, included Apocrypha at the end of the OT (like
Luther) as was done in later English versions, 1537 edition received royal
license, but banned in 1546
1536 Tyndale put to death, left his OT translation in manuscript, English
ecclesiaastical authorities ordered his Bible burned because it was thought to
be part of Lutheran reform
1537-1551 Matthew Bible, by John Rogers (1500-1555), based on Tyndale and
Coverdale received royal license but not authorized for use in public worship,
numerous editions, 1551 edition contained offensive notes (based on Tyndale)
1536-1541 Michelangelo paints the Last Judgement
1539-1552 Richard Taverner's (1505-1577) revisions of Matthew Bible, mostly NT
revisions since he didn't know Hebrew, 1st edition most reliable
1539-1569 Great Bible, by Thomas Cromwell, 1st English Bible to be authorized for
public use in English churches, defective in many places, based on last
Tyndale's NT of 1534-1535, corrected by a Latin version of the Hebrew OT,
Latin Bible of Erasmus, and Complutensian Polyglot, last edition 1569, never
denounced by England
1542 Conocation makes an unsuccessful attempt to correct the Great Bible against
the Vulgate
1543 Parliament bans Tyndale's translation as a "crafty, false and untrue
transalation", although 80% of the words were in the RV
1545-1563 Council of Trent, Catholic Reformation, or counter-reformation, met
Protestant challenge, clearly defining an official theology
1546 King Henry VIII forbids anyone to have a copy of Tyndale's or Coverdale's NT
1547-1553 Edward VI ruler of England
1549 Book of Common Prayer (Episcopal Church)
1550-1555 Pope Julius III
1550? St. Thomas More, Cranmer, and Foxe affirm the existence of English versions
of portions of the Bible, including the Gospels (11th century), Mark, Luke,
Epistles of Paul (14th century), Apocalypse (11th century)
1553-1558 Mary I ruler of England, publications of English Scriptures cease (except for
Geneva NT of 1557), many clerics leave England
1553 Pontifical Gregorian University founded at Vatican City
1555 Pope Marcellus II
1555-1559 Pope Paul IV
1556 Beza's Latin NT
1558-1603 Elizabeth I ruler of England
1559-1566 Pope Pius IV
1560 Geneva Bible, NT a revision of Matthew's version of Tyndale with use of
Beza's NT (1556), OT a thorough revision of Great Bible, appointed to be read
in Scotland (but not England), at least 140 editions
1560 Scotch Presbyterian Church founded by John Knox (1505-1572), due to
disagreement with Lutherans over sacraments and church government
1563 39 Articles (Episcopal Church)
1566-1572 Pope Pius V
1571 Superior force of Turks intent upon conquering Christian Europe is beaten
decisively by Christian sailors reportedly calling upon the name of Our Lady
of the Rosary
1572-1585 Pope Gregory XIII
1572-1606 Bishop's Bible, an inadequate and unsatisfactory revision of the Great Bible
checked against the Hebrew text, 1st to be published in England by episcopal
1582 Rheims NT, based on Coverdale, Bishops', Geneva, follows Wycliffe
1585-1590 Pope Sixtus V
1590-1591 Pope Urban VII
1590 Sistine edition of the Vulgate
1590 Michelangelo's dome in St Peter's Basilica completed
1591-1592 Pope Innocent IX
1592-1605 Pope Clement VIII
1596 Ukranian Catholic Church forms when Ukranian subjects of the king of Poland
are reunited with Rome, largest Byzantine Catholic Church
1603-1625 James I ruler of England, 1st to call himself King of Great Britain, became
official with Act of Union in 1707
1605 Pope Leo XI
1605-1621 Pope Paul V
1606 Carlo Maderno redesigns St Peter's Basilica into a Latin cross
1609 Baptist Church founded by John Smyth, due to objections to infant baptism
and demands for church-state separation
1609-1610 Rheims-Douay Bible, 1st Catholic English translation, OT published in two
volumes, based on an unofficial Louvain text corrected by Sistine Vulgate
(1590), NT is Rheims text of 1582
1611-1800 King James (Authorized) Version, based on Bishop's Bible of 1572 with use of
Rheims NT of 1582 - included Apocropha, alterations found in many editions
through 1800, revisors accused of being "damnable corrupters of God's
1621-1623 Pope Gregory XV
1623-1644 Pope Urban VIII
1625-1649 Charles I ruler of England
1633 AV published in Scotland
1644 Long Parliament directed that only Hebrew canon only be read in the Church
of England (effectively removed the Apocropha)
1644-1655 Pope Innocent X
1653-1658 Oliver Cromwell ruler of England
1655-1667 Pope Alexander VII
1658-1712 Richard Cromwell ruler of England
1660-1685 Charles II king of England, restoration of monarchy in England beginning under
Charles II, continuing through James II, reversed decision of Long Parliament
of 1644, reinstating the Apocrypha, reversal not heeded by non-conformists
1667-1670 Pope Clement IX
1667 Earthquake in Shemaka, Caucasia kills 80,000
1670-1676 Pope Clement X
1676-1689 Pope Innocent XI
1685-1688 James II king of England, deposed
1689-1702 William III king of England, with Mary II as queen until 1694
1689-1691 Pope Alexander VIII
1691-1700 Pope Innocent XII
1693 Earthquake in Catania, Italy kills 60,000
1700-1721 Pope Clement XI
1702-1714 Anne queen of England
1714-1727 George I king of England
1714 AV published in Ireland
1718 Catholic English version of NT by Dr. Nary, much less bulky than Reims-
1721-1724 Pope Innocent XIII
1724-1730 Pope Benedict XIII
1727-1760 George II king of England
1730-1740 Pope Clement XII
1730 Catholic English version of NT, revision of Reims NT by Dr. Robert Witham
1738 Methodist Church founded by Rev John Wesley
1738-1816 New Catholic English versions of NT by Dr. Richard Challoner and Francis
Blyth O.D.C., Bernard MacMahon, Dr Troy
1740-1758 Pope Benedict XIV
1752 AV published in New World colonies
1755 Earthquake in Northern Persia kills 40,000
1755 Earthquake in Lisbon, Portugal kills 60,000 (estimated at 8.75 Richter)
1758-1769 Pope Clement XIII
1760-1820 George III king of England
1769-1775 Pope Clement XIV
1775-1800 Pope Pius VI
1776 British colonies in America declare independance from England, American
1783 Earthquake in Calabria, Italy kills 30,000
1797 Earthquake in Quito, Ecuador kills 41,000
1800-1823 Pope Pius VII
1801-1877 Brigham Young, Mormon leader, colonized Utah
1811 Dr. Hay's revision of Challoner's version
1820-1830 George IV king of England
1822 Earthquake in Aleppo, Asia Minor kills 22,000
1815 Catholic Bible Society NT, based on Challoner's
1816-1829 Challoner's 3rd revision, Dr. John Lingard's translation from Greek using
Vulgate when possible
1823-1829 Pope Leo XII
1827 Mormon Church founded by Joseph Smith as a result of reported visions of
the Angel Moroni
1829-1831 Pope Pius VIII
1830-1837 William IV king of England
1830 Reported apparition of Mary in Paris, France, considered "worthy of belief"
by the Catholic Church
1831-1846 Pope Gregory XVI
1832 Church of Christ (Disciples) organized, made up of Presbyterians in distress
over Protestant factionalism and decline of fervor
1837-1901 Victoria queen of England
1846-1878 Pope Pius IX
1846 Reported apparition of Mary in La Salette, France, considered "worthy of
belief" by the Catholic Church
1852-1922 Charles Taze Russell, founded the Jehova's Witnesses movement in the 1870s
1858 Reported apparition of Mary in Lourdes, France, considered "worthy of
belief" by the Catholic Church
1859-1959 90 Catholic NT editions, 56 Catholic editions of the whole Bible
1868 Earthquakes in Peru and Ecuador kills 40,000
1869-1870 First Vatican Council, 20th ecumenical, affirms doctrine of papal infallibility
(ie. when a pope speaks ex cathedra on faith or morals he does so with the
supreme apostolic authority, which no Catholic may question or reject)
1871 Reported apparition of Mary in Pontmain, France, considered "worthy of
belief" by the Catholic Church
1875 Earthquake in Colombia, Venezuela
1878-1903 Pope Leo XIII
1878 14-point creed of the Niagara Bible Conference, used by Fundamentalists
1879 Reported apparition of Mary in Knock, Ireland, considered "worthy of belief"
by the Catholic Church
1881-1894 Revised Version, called for by Church of England, used Greek based on
Septuagint (B) and (S), Massoretic text used in OT, follows Greek order of
words, greater accuracy than AV, includes Apocrypha, scholarship never
1898-1904 Twentieth Century NT, changed order of books to chronological
1901-1910 Edward VII king of England
1901 American Standard Version, recension of the RV, included words/phrases
preferred by Americans, follows Greek order of words
1901 Pentecostal Church formed in Topeka, Kansas in reaction to loss of
evangelical fervor among Methodists and other denominations
1902 Richard Weymouth NT, a careful literary translation
1903-1914 Pope Pius X, most recent Pope to be canonized
1910-1936 George V king of England
1910 5-point statement of the Presbyterian General Assembly, also used by
1910-1915 The Fundamentals, a 12-volume collection of essays by 64 British and
American scholars and preachers, a foundation of Fundamentalism
1913-1924 James Moffat Bible, 1st one man translation in almost 400 years
1914-1922 Pope Benedict XV
1917 Reported apparition of Mary in Fatima, Portugal, "miracle of the sun"
witnessed by between 70,000 and 100,000 people, considered "worthy of
belief" by the Catholic Church
1919 World's Christian Fundamentals Association founded
1922-1939 Pope Pius XI
1925 Scopes Trial, caused division among Fundamentalists
1932 Reported apparition of Mary in Beauraing, Belgium, considered "worthy of
belief" by the Catholic Church
1933 Reported apparition of Mary in Banneux, Belgium, considered "worthy of
belief" by the Catholic Church
1936 Edward VIII king of England, acceeded and abdicated
1936-1952 George VI king of England
1936 Westminster NT, unofficial Catholic version (not commissioned by the
1939-1958 Pope Pius XII
1945-1955 Knox Version, from Vulgate, asked for by English Hierarchy
1946-1952 Revised Standard Version, revision of AV "based on consonantal Hebrew
text" for OT and best available texts for NT, done in response to changes in
English usage
1949 Basic English Bible, only 1000 words, simple and direct style
1949 Discovery of Qumran (Essenes?) scrolls, aka Dead Sea scrolls (see 68)
1952-Present Elizabeth II queen of England
1957 United Church of Christ founded by ecumenical union of Congregationalists and
Evangelical & Reformed, representing Calvinists and Lutherans
1958-1963 Pope John XXIII
1958 J. B. Phillip's NT, uses only commonly spoken language
1959 Statement of Faith (United Church of Christ)
1961 New English Bible, renders original Basic English Bible for private use
1962-1965 Second Vatican Council, 21st ecumenical, announced by Pope John XXIII in
1959, produced 16 documents which became official after approval by the
Pope, purpose to renew "ourselves and the flocks committed to us" (Pope
1963-1978 Pope Paul VI
1966 RSV Catholic Edition, a joint effort between Catholics and the Church of
England, a big step towards a common Catholic/Protestant Bible
1966 Jerusalem Bible, translation from original languages based on Bible de
Jerusalem, Catholic version
1970 Confraternity Version, new Catholic translation from the originals which
began before 1939 as a translation from the Vulgate, but ending up as a new
translation from the Hebrew (OT) and Greek (NT).
1971 New American Standard Bible, updated the ASV using recent Hebrew and
Greek textual discoveries
1978 Pope John Paul I
1978 New International Version, used eclectic Greek text, Massoretic Hebrew
text, and current English style
1978-? Pope John Paul II, reaffirmed conservative moral traditions (The Splendor of
Truth) and the forbidding of women in the priesthood
1979-1982? New King James Bible, complete revision of 1611 AV, updates archaisms
while retaining style
1981-? Reported apparitions of Mary in Medjugorje, Yugoslavia, not yet
approved/disapproved by the Catholic Church
1994 Declaration of cooperation between Evangelicals and Catholics

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