World Figures and Events
6th Century B.C.E. *
. Life of Guatama, the historical Buddha: conventional dates: 566-486 BCE (According to more recent research, revised dates are: 490-410 BCE).
. Persian Empire founded by
Cyrus the Great (550 B.C.E.)
. First Buddhist
Council at Rajagaha (486) after the Parinirvana*, under the
patronage of King Ajatasattu.
Socrates (469-399) |
. Plato (427-347)
. Battle of Marathon (490)
. Greek-Persian Wars (490-479)
. Partheon Built (438)
. Second Buddhist Council at
Vesali (386) about 100 year after the Parinirvana.
. Aristotle (384-322)
. Alexander the Great
. Reign of Indian Emperor Asoka (272-231) who converts and establishes the
Buddha's Dharma on a national level for the first time.
. Great Wall of China (250)
. Hadrian's Wall circa 3rd Century AD
. Hannibal Barca (247?-183?)
. Beginnings of
. Buddhist monuments: Sanchi, Amaravati, Bodhi Gaya, India. (185-175)
. Han Dynasty in
. The entire scriptural canon of the
Theravada School was committed to writing on palm leaves in Pali at the Aloka Cave, near Matale, Sri Lanka (35-32)
. 01BCE Mar 1, Start of the revised Julian calendar in Rome.
. Julius Caesar (100-44)
. Virgil, Latin poet (70-19)
1st Century C.E.*
. King Kaniska (78-101)
convened the Fourth Buddhist Council at Jalandhar or in Kashmir around 100 C.E.
(This is not recognized by the Theravadins).
. Jesus of Nazareth (0-33 C.E.)
. Destruction of Jerusalem and the second Temple: (70 C.E.)
. The Buddha first represented in art as human form.
. The Age of
Indian Buddhist philosopher Nargarjuna (150) founder
of the school of Madhyamika ('the Middle
. Roman Empire reaches the height of its
. Expansion of Buddhism to
Burma, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and Indonesia.
. Three Kingdoms dynasty (220-265) Division into three states:
Wei, Shu, Wu. Many scientific advances adopted from India.
(310-390) and his brother Vasubandhu (420-500) prominent teachers of the Yogacara school of Buddhism.
. Gupta dynasty exemplified by Chandra Gupta II (375-415) dominated North Central India.
. Saint Augustine (354-430)
. Buddhist monastic university
founded at Nalanda, India.
. 5th Century Anglo-Saxon Invasion of England
. Earliest hospital in Sri
. Fall of the Western Roman Empire (476)
. Bodhidharma founder of Ch'an (Zen) arrives in China from
. Prophet Mohammed (570-632)
. The Age of Islamic
. First pagoda built in China (600)
. Construction of Potala
Palace, Jokang and Ramoche temples to house Buddha images (641-650)
|. Islam sweeps
across North Africa (700-800)|
. Tang dynasty, China (618-906)
schools (Jöjitsu, Kusha,
Sanron, Hossö, Ritsu, and Kegon) proliferate in
. Nara Period in Japanese history (710-784)
. First monastery built in Tibet (Sam-ye) (749)
. Moslem invasion of Central Asia (760)
. Charlemagne (742-814)
. Khmer kings build Angkor Wat, the world's largest religious
. Biography of Buddha translated into Greek by Saint John of Damascus and distributed in Christianity as "Balaam" and "Josaphat".
. Heian Period in Japanese
. First printed book, Diamond Sutra, China (868)
. First complete printing of Chinese Buddhist Canon (983), known as the Szechuan edition.
. Buddhism in Thailand (900-1000)
. Islam replaces Buddhism in Central Asia (900-1000).
. Sung Dynasty in Chinese History (960-1279)
. 1000 C.E The population at
this time was about 200 million people in the world.
. Conversion of King Anawrahta of Pagan (Burma) (1044-77) by Shin Arahan.
. Atisha (982-1054)
arrives in Tibet from India (1042).
.The bhikkhu and bhikkhuni (monk and nun) communities at Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka, die out following invasions from South India.
. Sakya School of Tibetan Buddhism
. 1000-1100 There was a Confucian revival in China.
. Edward the Confessor,
English king (1042-1066)
. Great Schism between Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches (1054)
. 1st Crusades (1096-1099)
. Theravada Buddhism established in Burma.
. Eisai (1141-1215) founds the Rinzai Zen School of Japanese Buddhism.
. In 1193 the Moslems attacked and conquered Magadha, the heartland of Buddhism in India, and with the destruction of the Buddhist Monasteries and Universities (Valabhi and Nalanda) - in that area Buddhism was wiped out.
. Buddhism in Korea flourishes under the Koryo dynasty (1140-1390).
. Omar Khayyam, Persian poet and mathematician (1044-1123)
. 1119 Bologna University founded in Italy; Paris University, in France, is founded in 1150.
. Kamakura Period in Japanese history (1192-1338)
(1173-1263 ) founds
True Pure Land School of Japanese
. Francis of Assisi
. Bu-ston collects and edits Tibetan Buddhist
. John Wycliffe (1328-1384)
English theologian and biblical translator.
. China regains its independence from the Mongols under the Ming dynasty (1368)
. Beginning of Dalai Lama lineage in Tibetan Buddhism. . In Cambodia, the Vishnuite temple, Angkor Wat, founded in the 12th century, becomes a Buddhist centre.
|. Development of
printing in Europe|
. Leonardo DaVinci (1452-1519)
. Columbus "finds" the new world (1492)
. Tibet's Gelugpa leader receives the title of
"Dalai" from Altan Khan (1578).
|. Martin Luther
. Protestant Reformation
. Shakespeare, (1564-1616)
. Galileo (1564-1642)
. Control of
Japanese Buddhism by Tokugawa Shögunate (the ruling feudal government) (I603-1867)
. Japan closes the door to foreigners
. Colonial occupation of Sri
Lanka, Burma, Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam.
. 1700s Age of Enlightenment
introduces revolutionary new ideas to Europe.
. New sects begin to emerge
in Japanese Buddhism.
. Meiji Restoration in Japanese history 1868, marking end
of military rule.
. 1833 Abolition of slavery in British empire.
. Buddhist Society of Great
Britain, founded (1907).
. Mahatma Gandhi (1869-1948)
. WW I (1914-1918)
. Russian revolution (1917-1922)
. 1919 Ernest Rutherford
splits atom for first time.
. WW II (1939-1945)
. Cultural Revolution
. Pope John Paul II pardons Galileo (1995)
. The Fall of the Berlin Wall, the Cold War ends. (1989)