Baltic gods


Dewing Uschinge

In Latvian mythology, Ūsiņš or Dewing Uschinge was the god of horses, bees and light, mentioned by Joannis Stribingius, the Jesuit, in 1606. He took care of horses during the summer, then transferred the power to Martins at the festival of Martini. He was especially associated with the festival Jurgi.


(sometimes Praamžius or Okopirmas in folklore) is the god of the sky, lightness, peace and friendship in Lithuanian mythology. He is the prompter of vegetation. His animals are horses, stags, bulls and small birds. His sacred trees are birches, ryes and other deciduous trees. He is also the creator in the Lithuanian sagas. He awards good people and punishes hunks. Dievas is sometimes similar to Dievas Senelis, but he has great creative power. One saga tells how Dievas was washing his face, when one dirty drop dropped on the ground and became a human. Dievas often goes with his brother (or creation) Velnias (Velinas, Patulas). Velnias is always trying imitate or stymie Dievas, but his works become evil and snags.

Dievas is said to have created the ground. He sent Velnias to the bottom of the primeval ocean and told him to bring up some dirt. Velnias was diving three times, but the water swilled the dirt from his hands. Then Dievas found some dirt under Velnias' nails. Dievas formed a seed of the dirt, and dropped it into the water. The seed became a small bit of earth. Dievas spent the night with Velnias on the bit. Velnias execrated Dievas and wanted to drown him, while he was sleeping. He took Dievas and started to pull him towards the water. Where Dievas glided, the earth grew.

Dievas' wife is called Dievų Motė or Lada.


In Latvian mythology, Jānis (or Jahnis) was a deity associated with Jāņi, the Midsummer's Night festival. After Christianization, he was associated with John the Baptist, through a process of syncretism. Once a year, Jānis came to bring luck and fertility to the people of Latvia.

In modern Latvia, it is the most popular male given name. Some of the most notable people bearing this name are Rainis (born Jānis Pliekšāns), writer, Jānis Cardinal Pujāts, Jānis Čakste, the first President of Latvia, Jānis Lūsis, Olympic medalist, Jānis Peters, poet, Jānis Rozentāls, painter, and many more.


In Latvian mythology, Jumis is an agriculture and fertility god. He is associated with "double-plants," such as two corn stalks or trees which have grown together and share a trunk or stem. During harvesting, some stalks of the crops are bent to the ground and secured in that location with stones. See also his holiday, Mikeli, for the ritual called the Catching of Jumis.

Another ritual, called Jumja kersana, involves a procession, carrying some grains that symbolize a "captured" Jumis to the home, thereby ensuring the following year's harvest will be at least as successful.

He is depicted as a short man with clothes that resemble ears of wheat, hops and barley.


In Latvian mythology, Martins (Mārtiņš) was a god who protected the Latvian people, and their livestock such as horses, during the winter months, from thieves, cold and starvation. He took over the function of protector of the horses from Usins on November 10, the festival of Martini.

Meza Virs

In Latvian mythology, Meza Virs was the god of the forests, associated with wolves.


In Latvian mythology, Miķelis was one of dieva dēli, sons of Dievs, the supreme god. He was a god of astronomy, prophecy and abundance.
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In Latvian mythology, Mēness was the god of the moon and the patron of travelers and soldiers. He was one of the suitors of Saules meitas. Mēness counted the stars and determined that Auseklis was missing, and stole Auseklis' bride. He was usually a rival of Saule, the sun.


(the Latvian Pērkons, compare also Lith. perkūnas, "thunder", perkūnija, "thunder-storm", perkūnúoti "to rattle", the Latvian, pērkons, "thunder", Prussian percunis, "thunder") in the Lithuanian mythology was the god of thunder, lightning, and rain.

Perkūnas and Pērkons have cognates outside of the Baltic languages, such as Perun (Slavic, cf. also Belarus Pyarun), Old Indian Parjanya, Hittite Pirva, probably, Albanian Perëndi, Thracian Περχων. Outside of the Indo-European languages, there is Mordovian Pur'gine-paza and Finnish and Lappish Perkele.

Perkūnas' wife was named Perkūnija, Perkūnė. See Icelandic Fjorgyn, a name of mother of the Thunderer, and Germanic Fergunna (Latinized form).

The etymology is apparently uncertain. PIE *per-, 'to strike' and PIE *perkwu-, 'oak' (associated in myth), have both been proposed. Cf. also Hittite peruna, 'rock', Sanskrit parvata, 'mountain'. The god is associated with mountain tops in myth, and in Novgorod a sanctuary of Perun is located on a height called Perynj.


In Latvian mythology, Zalksti was a god of well-being and fertility, about whom little is known. He was associated with snakes.

Alternative: Cuska ("snake")