Toward a Psycho-Civilized Society
The background to the development of anti-personnel electromagnetic weapons can be traced by to the early-middle 1940's and possibly earlier. The earliest extant reference, to my knowledge, was contained in the U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey (Pacific Survey, Military Analysis Division, Volume 63) which reviewed Japanese research and development efforts on a "Death Ray."
Whilst not reaching the stage of practical application, research was considered sufficiently promising to warrant the expenditure of Yen 2 million during the years 1940-1945. Summarizing the Japanese efforts, allied scientists concluded that a ray apparatus might be developed that could kill unshielded human beings at a distance of 5 to 10 miles. Studies demonstrated that, for example, automobile engines could be stopped by tuned waves as early as 1943. (1) It is therefore reasonable to suppose that this technique has been available for a great many years. Research on living organisms (mice and ground hogs) revealed that waves from 2 meters to 60 centimeters in length caused hemorrhage of lungs, whereas waves shorter than two meters destroyed brain cells.
However, experiments in behavior modification and mind manipulation have a much more grisly past. Nazi doctors at the Dachau concentration camp conducted involuntary experiments with hypnosis and narco-hypnosis, using the drug mescaline on inmates. Additional research was conducted at Aushwitz, using a range of chemicals including various barbiturates and morphine derivatives. Many of these experiments proved fatal.
Following the conclusion of the war, the U.S. Naval Technical Mission was tasked with obtaining pertinent industrial and scientific material that had been produced by the Third Reich and which may be of benefit to U.S. interests. Following a lengthy report, the Navy instigated Project CHATTER in 1947. Many of the Nazi scientists and medical doctors who conducted hideous experiments were later recruited by the U.S. Army and worked out of Heidelberg prior to being secretly relocated to the United States under the Project PAPERCLIP program. Under the leadership of Dr. Hubertus Strughold, 34 ex-Nazi scientists accepted "Paperclip" contracts, authorized by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and were put to work at Randolph Air Force Base, San Antonio, Texas. By 1953 the CIA, U.S. Navy and the U.S. Army Chemical Corps were conducting their own narco-hypnosis programs on unwilling victims that included prisoners, mental patients, foreigners, ethic minorities and those classified as sexual deviants. (2)
It was not until the middle or late 1970's that the American public became aware of a series of hitherto secret programs that had been conducted over the preceding two decades by the military and intelligence community. (3) Primarily focusing on narco-hypnosis, these extensive covert programs bore the project titles MKULTRA, MKDELTA, MKNAOMI, MKSEARCH (MK being understood to stand for Mind Kontrol), BLUEBIRD, ARTICHOKE and CHATTER. The principal aim of these and associated programs was the development of a reliable "programmable" assassin. Secondary aims were the development of a method of citizen control. (4)
Particularly relevant was Dr. Jose Delgado's secret work directed towards the creation of a "psycho-civilized" society by use of a "stimoceiver." (5) Delgado's work was seminal, and his experiments on humans and animals demonstrated that electronic stimulation can excite extreme emotions including rage, lust and fatigue. In his paper "Intracerebral Radio Stimulation and recording in Completely Free Patients," Delgado observed that: "Radio Stimulation on different points in the amygdala and hippocampus in the four patients produced a variety of effects, including pleasant sensations, elation, deep thoughtful concentration, odd feelings, super relaxation (an essential precursor for deep hypnosis), colored visions, and other responses."
With regard to the "colored visions" citation, it is reasonable to conclude he was referring to hallucinations -- an effect that a number of so-called "victims" allude to. (7) As far back as 1969, Delgado predicted the day would soon arrive when a computer would be able to establish two-way radio communication with the brain -- an event that first occurred in 1974. Lawrence Pinneo, a neurophysiologist and electronic engineer working for Stanford Research Institute (a leading military contractor), "developed a computer system capable of reading a person's mind. It correlated brain waves on an electroencephalograph with specific commands. Twenty years ago the computer responded with a dot on a TV screen. Nowadays it could be the input to a stimulator (ESB) in advanced stages using radio frequencies." (8)
In any event, narco-hypnosis was found, it is claimed, to be less than reliable, although some writers and observers dispute this. (9) Additional studies, conducted by Dr. Ewen Cameron and funded by the CIA, were directed towards erasing memory and imposing new personalities on unwilling patients. Cameron discovered that electroshock treatment caused amnesia. He set about a program that he called "de-patterning" which had the effect of erasing the memory of selected patients. Further work revealed that subjects could be transformed into a virtual blank machine (Tabula Rasa) and then be re-programmed with a technique which he termed "psychic driving." Such was the bitter public outrage, once his work was revealed (as a result of FOIA searches), that Cameron was forced to retire in disgrace.
Also of interest is Dr. John C. Lilly (10), who was asked by the Director of the National Institute of Mental Health to brief the CIA, FBI, NSA and military intelligence services on his work using electrodes to stimulate, directly, the pleasure and pain centers of the brain. Lilly said that he refused the request. However, as stated in his book, he continued to do "useful" work for the national security apparatus. In terms of timing this is interesting, for these events took place in 1953. Scientist Eldon Byrd, who worked for the Naval Surface Weapons Office, was commissioned in 1981 to develop electromagnetic devices for purposes including riot control, clandestine operations and hostage removal. (11)
From 1965 through to 1970, Defense Advanced Projects Research Agency (DARPA), with up to 70-80% funding provided by the military, set in motion operation PANDORA to study the health and psychological effects of low intensity microwaves with regard to the so-called "Moscow signal." This project appears to have been quite extensive and included (under U.S. Navy funding) studies demonstrating how to induce heart seizures, create leaks in the blood/brain barrier and production of auditory hallucinations. Despite attempts to render the Pandora program invisible to scrutiny, FOIA filings revealed memoranda of Richard Cesaro, Director of DARPA, which confirmed that the program's initial goal was to "discover whether a carefully controlled microwave signal could control the mind." Cesaro urged that these studies be made "for potential weapons applications." (12)
Following immense public outcry, Congress forbade further research and demanded that these projects be terminated across the board. But as former CIA agent Victor Marchetti later revealed, the programs merely became more covert with a high element of "deniability" built in to them, and that CIA claims to the contrary are a cover story. (13) Despite the fact that many of the aforementioned projects revolved around the use of narcotics and hallucinogens, projects ARTICHOKE, PANDORA and CHATTER clearly demonstrate that "psychoelectronics" were a high priority. Indeed, author John Marks' anonymous informant (known humorously as "Deep Trance") stated that beginning in 1963 mind control research strongly emphasized electronics.
An obscure District of Columbia corporation called Mankind Research Unlimited (MRU) and its wholly owned subsidiary, Systems Consultants Inc. (SCI), operated a number of classified intelligence, government and Pentagon contracts, specializing in, amongst other things: "problem solving in the areas of intelligence electronic warfare, sensor technology and applications." (14)
MRU's "capability and experience" is divided into four fields. These include "biophysics -- Biological Effects of Magnetic Fields," "Research in Magneto-fluid Dynamics," "Planetary Electro-Hydro-Dynamics" and "Geo-pathic Efforts on Living Organisms." The latter focuses on the induction of illness by altering the magnetic nature of the geography. Also under research were "Biocybernetics, Psychodynamic Experiments in Telepathy," "Errors in Human Perception," "Biologically Generated Fields," "Metapsychiatry and the Ultraconscious Mind" (believed to refer to experiments in telepathic mind control), "Behavioural Neuropsychiatry," "Analysis and Measurement of Human Subjective States" and "Human Unconscious Behavioural Patterns."
Employing some old OSS, CIA and military intelligence officers, the company also engages the services of prominent physicians and psychologists including E. Stanton Maxey, Stanley R. Dean Berthold Eric Schwarz plus many more. MRU lists in its Company Capabilities "brain and mind control." (15) Despite vehement claims by MRU's chairman that it is not a "front organization for any branch of the United States Government..." (16) one must treat these claims with a great deal of skepticism.