Personality disorders

From Abnormal psychology (

Personality disorders are long standing patterns of maladaptive behavior. 4 The personality disorders are when a person uses improper and immature ways to deal with problems or situations. People with this type of disorder do not feel like they are doing anything wrong and therefore do nto want to change thier behavior like people with anxiety disorders. There are 11 major personality disorders defined by the DSM-III. Some of these include: Antisocial Personality Disorder, Avoidant Personality Disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder, Dependent Personality Disorder, Histrionic Personality Disorder, Narcissistic Personality Disorder, Obsessive- Compulsive Personality Disorder, Paranoid Personality Disorder, Schizoid Personality Disorde, and Schizotypal Personality Disorder.

Antisocial Personality Disorder

This disorder is characterized by the careless disregard for the rights of others. It can be recognized by several symptoms. Someone with an antisocial personality is usually decietful and is remorseless. Other symptoms include the reckless disregard of saftey-both of him/herself and of others, a large irritability and aggressiveness coupled with impulsivness. Most antisocial personalities also fail to conform to social norms.

Avoidant Personality Disorder

Individuals with this disorder feel inadequate, have great sensitivity to what others think and say about them, and are socially impotent. This disorder is characterized by someone who is terribly reluctant to take personal risks or try new things because they may be embarrassed. Avoidant personalities don't like to get involved in intimate relationships, constantly think about being criticized or rejected, and see themselves as socially inept and inferior.

Borderline Personality Disorder

Sufferers of this disorder have highly unstable interpersonal relationships. The cause of this instability is closely related to the person's self image and also thier early social interactions. Symptoms include an unstable self image, rapid mood changes, a need to avoid feelings of abandonment whether real or imagined. The person also may have difficulty controling thier anger and have recuring feelings of emptiness. Suicide attempts and self mutilation are also among the recognized symptoms.

Dependent Personality Disorder

This disorder is characterized by a need to be taken care of an a fear of being abandoned. Suffers of it are very clingy and usually have the following symptoms: helpless when alone because of exagerated sense of not being able to care for self, when one close relationship ends the person immediately tries to find another, problems initiating projects or ideas because of a lack of self esteem, difficulty dissagreeing with others, needs other to take responsibility for him/her, cannot make decisions with out advice from others.

Histrionic Personality Disorder

People with this disorder excessively seek emotion and attention for themselves. This disorder can be recognized by these symptoms: the person is uncomfertable when he/she is not the center of attention, easily suggestible, uses physical appearence to draw attention, emotions are rapidly changing and shallow, speech very impressionistic and lacks detail, thinks that relationships are more intimiate than they really are, exagerated expression of emotion, and interaction with others is usually caracterized by innapropriate sexual behavior.

Narcissistic Personality Disorder

Individuals who are excessively grandios, have a need for admiration, and lack empathy are usually considered to be a narcissistic personality. They can only truly be shown to have the disorder if the person has five of the following symptoms: extreme arrogance and haugtiness, envious of others or believes that they are envious of him, doesn't recognize the feelings of others, exploits other persons for his/her own aims, requires admiration, has fantasies of success and power, has a sense of entitlement and believes that he/she is special.

Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

An obsessive-compulsive personality has a preoccupation with orderliness, perfection, as well as mental and interpersonal control. However this usually comes at the cost of flexibility, efficiancy, and openness. Four of the following are used to determine if someone has this disorder: miserly attitude- wants to save money for a future disaster, very rigid and stubborn, doesn't like to delegate unless the person will do it exactly the way the sufferer would, pack rat-unable to discard things, preoccupied with details, perfectionism interferes with ability to finish tasks, escessively devoted to work, and inflexible in matters of moarlity, ethics, or values.

Paranoid Personality Disorder

Often misunderstood as malevolent because paranoid personality disorder suffers are distrustful and suspicious of others. Only four of the following are needed to indicate paranoid personality disorder: individual suspects, with no cause, that others are out to get him; is reluctant to confide in others; is suspicous, without cause, that significant other is being unfaithful; doesn't forgive grudges; has doubts about the loyalty of friends and relations; reads hidden threatening messages into benign statments or situations.

Schizoid Personality Disorder

A person who has a detatchment from social relationships and a restricted range of emotional expression in interpersonal situations is considered a schizoid personality. This can be verified by four out of seven symptoms. These symptoms are: a loner-always chooses solitary activities, doesn't want or enjoy any close relationships-including family, has very little interest in having sexual experiences with another person, has no close friends except for immidiate family, demonstrates emotional coldness and detatchment, takes enjoyment in very few activities, and appears indifferent to what others think of him/her.

Schizotypal Personality Disorder

Schizotypal personality disorder is characterized by people who have discomfort with, and a reduced capactiy for, close relationships, cognitive or perceptual distortions, and eccentricities of behavior. There are nine symptoms but only five are needed to confirm that someone is schizotypal. These symptoms are: the person has ideas of reference, has odd beliefs or thinking that doesn't agree with subcultural norms(ie belief in clairvoyance), odd speech patterns, strange perceptual experiences, a lack of close friends other than immidiate family, extreme social anxiety, strange behavior or appearance, suspicious or paranoid ideas, and inapproptiate or constricted affect.