The fundamental difference between the inanimate, inorganic systems and organic, self-organising systems is the appearance of such life phenomena within the latter ones as metabolism, sensitivity, growth, multiplication and homeostasis. It is clear that an inorganic 'object' is one which lacks free energy and mobile 'tentacles', mobile external sensors and executive instruments. We observe in nature that all 'objects' with free energy and movable surfaces spontaneously organise themselves into 'systems', e.g. atoms, molecules and crystals. 'Systems' are objects which are mobile enough to organise themselves into a hierarchical order, generating a level where they can act freely and so can organise their activity in their environment. This spontaneous organisation is 'automatic', it is a universal characteristics of material 'objects', therefore we usually ignore it. Nevertheless, spontaneity is a remarkable property of the system formation from its elements. The formula H2 + O --> H2O expresses, that by mixing the components water molecules form automatically, spontaneously if the mix is supplied with the necessary amount of energy to trigger the process. But the question arises: how do the molecules of hydrogen and oxygen find each other? If they follow a heat motion, a brownian random motion, only a minute part of the molecules with proper impact factors (distance and velocity) could collide in the manner necessary to form the compound molecules during the short time interval given by the trigger heat and the explosion. This observation makes it clear that a yet unnoticed 'spontaneity' acts as an organising factor even in the sphere of inanimate systems. A new and independent evidence appeared and this underlies the above argument. A recent result substantiates the spontaneous targeting phenomenon in H2 + O --> H2O ( Hemley, 1995 ). This reaction between hydrogen and oxygen is surely one of the best studied chemical reactions, but details of the reaction kinetics have always been enigmatic. Loubeyre and LeToullec (1995) found that the normally explosive reaction is shut down by pressure and a new compound is formed. It means that the factors organising the reactions are sensitive to pressure and temperature.
The organisation of the biologically active configurations of proteins from an unfolded polypeptide chain presents another enigma known as the Levinthal-paradox. C. Anfinsen showed in the early 1970s that a protein having been unfolded by chemical denaturants could refold spontaneously when the denaturing conditions were reversed. Levinthal pointed out in the late 1960s that the number of possible states of an unfolded protein is larger than 1060. Assuming that the protein " hunts" for the biologically active configuration in a random process at a rate set by vibration frequencies (about 1013 searches per second), for a single protein molecule to arrive at the folded state would take longer (1030 times) than the age of the Universe. But proteins can fold completely within hours - sometimes within milliseconds - and early steps occur on time-scales far shorter than milliseconds. It is shown, that interactions between secondary structures - i.e. long-range intramolecular interactions between a-helices and b-sheets - are important in the folding process, which is sensitive to temperature and electromagnetic fields (Callender et al., 1994). Remarkably, new and independent results substantiate our arguments on the phenomena of spontaneous organisation. Hess and Mikhailov (1995) pointed out, that in living cells the enzymatic subsystem within normal conditions represents a coherent molecular network, the entire population of the network is in continuous communication and undergoes collective evolution. These molecular networks are in close analogy to neural networks and insect societies. Mikhailov and Ness (1995) showed that when a new protein molecule is produced at a membrane, it is loaded into a budding vesicle which then moves through the cell until it reaches its target at another membrane location. They presented evidences for their assumption that vesicles detect the direction leading to their targets and can actively move towards them. Thus, the behaviour of vesicles resembles that of entire cells in chemotaxis and in the phenomenon of cell-to-cell communication. The intrinsic reference frame needed for detection of the motion direction by vesicles could be provided by the intracellular chemical gradients and/or by the electrical fields present inside a living cell.
The same problem of the existence of a targeting mechanism seems to work in the olfactory field, as well. How could the odorant molecules find automatically their receptors? Lewis Thomas (1974) noted that eels have been taught to smell two or three molecules of phenylethyl alcohol. An average man can detect just a few molecules of butyl mercaptan. How the olfactory cells are fired by an odorant is not known. The substance may become bound to the cells possessing specific receptors for it and then may just sit there, somehow displaying its signal from a distance.
I suggest the term " spontaneous targeting" for this general phenomenon present in the inanimate and animate worlds as well. Spontaneous targeting is just a sub-phenomenon of the more general spontaneous organisation pervading the whole Cosmos (Endre K. Grandpierre, 1996a, and also in this volume). This spontaneous organisation factor is the one which organises any system with the proper conditions (free energy, movable perceiving surfaces, etc.) into biological organisms. Of course, a totally inanimate object will never 'resurrect' to an organised system, therefore the mere presence of life anywhere in the Universe indicates the universal presence of an organising factor.
If a system is able to develop a level of phenomenon which is independent from mere physical and environmental determinations, it develops its own laws on this level. In order to be able to follow these laws, it has to find a way to handle the energy and information which reached the system from a global perspective, transporting the energy and information easily to the place where they serve the global project. This 'global organisation' assumes the existence of an 'action-in-distance', first of all, because the global organising centre has to contact - within the shortest time of the reaction time scales - not only the state of affairs in the whole system, but also it has to process the information and reach the proper decision. The system has to be 'transparent' for the information needed. On the other hand, the system also has to be filled with free energy stores in order to make the energy easily available when the decisions reach local parts of the system. This informational transparency requires an informational action-in-distance. If there an informational transparency exists within the system, it may also be used to gain access to interact with other systems in the informational level. This intersubjective informational transparency is the first form of perception that nature applied, in generating always the global system first and the subsystems subsequently, e.g. the Metagalaxy first and the Galaxy afterwards, the species first, the individual later. Therefore, informational transparency is as basic for the individuals of a species as for the cells within the body of the organism. Actually, this informational 'action in distance' is based on a co-operation of similarly tuned units of organisation, at cells, organisms, groups, in and between different species, until the biosphere as a whole and the Universe as a whole. This primal perception is the way how cosmic tuning (Grandpierre, A., 1992), and an anthropic, life-containing Universe (Barrow, Tipler, 1986) are produced. The transparent exchange of information is a kind of perception which was necessarily developed upon the origin of Metagalaxy, and divided afterwards into its subsystems, all of which kept some primal patterns of its antedescent organism in order to be able to organise itself as a whole. This informational perception turns out to be a primal, cosmic perception which developed before the origin of external senses. The primal perception is a direct unfolding and exchange of all basic information present in the Cosmos. This primal perception is the first - still unnoticed- life phenomenon developed in the Universe. The primal perception still preserved some of its characteristics in the phenomena of group effect.
Electromagnetic fields are known to mediate information extremely effectively through e.g. light waves. The wave-particle duality has been known since the two-slit experiment of Young in 1801. This duality describes a spherical spread and a parallel guidance, as expressed in a local sudden collapse into a 'particle', photon at the site of interaction. The nature of this duality is still not well understood (Newton, Wigner, 1949). I suggest that the solution of this fundamental problem of the field theories of physics, in electromagnetism as well as in quantum field theories, lies in the fact that an immediate mediator field exists which mediates information or structural patterns from the wavefronts immediately into the place of interaction, e.g. the site of observation. In my interpretation besides the wavefronts of the electromagnetic waves an ultrafast or immediate 'mediator' field exists which is able to transform the wavefront in a glance into a photon particle. This mediator field acts faster than the speed of light, immediately, and gives a clear picture on the nature of electromagnetic wave propagation. This ultrafast mediator field is able to interpret the fundamental variational principles of physics. This EM mediator field exchanges energy and information between the extended magnetic field of the current and the circuit itself. The existence of this fundamental field is the only solution to the still unrecognised fundamental problem of electromagnetism i.e. the energy of the EM field seems to be present in its whole amount in the circuit and, at the same time, in the EM field. If it means an actual simultaneity, it would lead to a doubling of the energy, which is absurd. Therefore the only solution is the one I suggest here, and that is an EM field which is able to 'act in distance'.
As early as 1892 Maxwell recognised that the EM energy is present in the circuit and the EM field simultaneously. He understood that the current is able to perform electrolysis locally, to develop Joule-heat locally, and the ability to do work locally involves local energy. At the same time, the energy is also present in the form of field energy. Maxwell suggested that a part of the EM energy is present locally and the remaining part is present globally (1892, Vol. II, p. 212). Nevertheless, the calculations lead to equal amounts of energy, and when one form of EM energy changes, the other form changes simultaneously. Feynman, the founder of quantum electrodynamics, expressed a view that the energy is present in the field globally- but he is silent about the local EM energy (Feynman et al., 1963). The presence of this primary EM field offers for the first time the actual, immediate 'action in distance', which has a significance of overall importance, in the understanding the nature of the field of consciousness, as well. It is interesting, that Maxwell himself, in the last chapter "Theories of action at a distance" of his book recognized the instantaneous character of some EM effects: "An electric particle sends forth a potential, the value of which ee'/r, depends not only on e, the emitting particle, but on e', the receiving particle, and on distance r between the particles at the instant of emission" (Maxwell, 1892). This primary EM field may serve as a physical basis for the 'spontaneous targeting' introduced above, the 'spontaneous collapse' of the waves to the site of interaction or observation, thus solving the central measurement problem of the present day quantum theory, and the 'primary perception', which is a yet unnoticed effect, but discovered independently and simultaneously by the present author and Endre K. Grandpierre (this volume). This primary EM field may help in maintaining the 'global organization' and 'informational transparency' described above.
15. The Source of the EM Field
The presence of the immediate mediator EM field is clear from the followings, as well. Let us imagine the sudden appearance of an electric charge at a certain point. We know that the law of conservation is valid for the electric charges but the thought experiment also works with a sudden separation of a new-born electron-positron pair. Regarding the fact that the EM waves spread with the speed of light, and thinking that they start from the appearance of the charge - or the separation of the dipole - , we have to think that the electromagnetic field of the charge propagates with the speed of light. If the energy of the charge is in the field then with the spreading of the EM wavefront the energy in the field grows. But the electric charge conserves, therefore its energy and charge do not change. Following this line of thought we can think that the conservation law of energy is violated. Thinking the same thought experiment with a suddenly separated dipole, the sudden appearance of the dipole leads again to a continuous propagation of the EM field, even if we stop the separation at a certain moment. This means that the field is able to rearrange itself from one form into another form, and the expanding EM field is able to draw energy from its previous, latent form. The three forms of EM fields- wavefront, photon, and coupling mediator field, are able to exchange energy and information within each other immediately, as if they were one unique existent, or living in a complete symbioses. They may be regarded as being in a resonant coupling. I suggest, that the collective consciousness field extends this symbiosis to the overlapping particle mediated fields, like the acoustic or the olfactory field, as well as to other forms of vacuum fields besides the EM forms, the quantum-vacuum holographic fields (Laszlo, 1993, 1995). Their symbiosis, the inclusion of all of them into resonant coupling, is the key generative factor of the flexible, ultrasensitive organisation phenomena observed in the Universe, biosphere and societies. I suggest that the spell of the music may be understood by the coupling of the acoustic field of the body to EM vibration fields.
The EM field, as a part of the consciousness field, is shown to be able to directly trigger electric activity in the neuronal cells. On the other hand, the EM field emitted by the brain's activity is a measurable field. This result makes available a physical means for measuring consciousness field from point-to-point, for measuring the guidance of the consciousness field (or psi-field) between two people. Human brain works with a power of 20 Watts. We know that large amount of this power becomes waste heat and cools the brain. Nevertheless, all the energy produced by the organism in the course of metabolism goes through a significant step, the free energy, which is in direct relevance to EM energy. Since all the energy of metabolism goes through the EM phase, all the energy has to be present simultaneously in the EM field energy, a significant part of which leaves the body. We may think that if later on this EM energy is transformed into other forms of energy by mechanical work or heat, this is irrelevant in our estimation of the environmental EM field of the organism. Nevertheless, this view is not correct, if, as we have shown, all the EM energy of the organism is simultaneously present in the environment.
Mankind's brain activity involves a work of 1011 Watts, comparable to the electromagnetic power entering the earthly magnetosphere from the solar wind. The biomass of the Earth is a substantial factor of the source of the EM fields at the surface of the Earth. Scott (1962) measured the electric field of a bean root in the surrounding solution of the root. The measured total power dissipated electrically to the environment by the root is 10-9 W. Remarkably, the electric field shows a spontaneous and truly endogenous rhythm with a 5-minute period which coincides with the periods of the acoustic modes of the Sun. It is interesting to note here the remark of Cox and Giuli (1968) on the close value of the specific energy production rate of the solar core and of the specific energy liberation rate of the human metabolism, both of which are around 100 ergs/g/s. The so-called dry-matter content of the biomass is 846 g/m2, i.e. 4.3 1017 g, which, taking a factor of ten for the water content, would give a value of 1014 W (as we know that 80% of the mass of the living matter is water). The plants of the biosphere transform half of the energy of the incoming solar radiation to its plant matter, i.e. 1.72 1017W. One percent of this energy is transformed to energy contained in form of food. The original living form of solar energy as it was firstly bound in plants when reaching the food-eater predators, suffers a ten-thousandfold loss, to 1013 W (after Odum, 1971). The produced biological free energy, as calculated from the dry-matter content, is 20 810 Kcal/m2/year of the plants, 3 368 Kcal/m2/year of the herbivorous animals, and 21 Kcal/m2/year of the large predators (Fábián et al., 1975). These numbers give a biological energy of the plants around 1.43 1015W. If only ten-thousand part of this biological free energy was expressively radiated out to the environment, this value still would be significant enough to be comparable to the geophysical factors. We have to realise, that plants, and EM fields of animal and human origin may be a substantial part of our EM environment. The EM field of human origin is of a smaller amplitude, but this relative difference may be balanced by the relative ease with which we can tune to human frequencies. If we are able to tune ourselves to the plants' field, we can feel their overwhelming, galvanising EM fields.
Burr (1935) formulated a concept that EM fields organise the living processes. "The pattern of organization of any biological system is established by a complex electrodynamic field which is, in part, determined by its atomic physiochemical components and which, in part, determines the behavior and orientation of those components. More than establishing pattern, it must maintain pattern in the midst of a physiochemical flux. Therefore, it must regulate and control living things, it must be the mechanism, the outcome of whose activity is 'wholeness', organization, and continuity."
Burr (1956) measured the relatively steady-state standing potential of a tree for more than a decade. The potential shows diurnal, monthly, and seasonal variations of considerable interest and, over the years, and suggested a correlation with sunspot activity. It has been adequately demonstrated that a living organism, a tree, is an electric system, exhibiting all the properties of an electric field. It is remarkable that in its most fundamental electromagnetic regulation the cosmic effects appeared so pronouncedly.
Ravitz (1962) was able to show, by working out 50 000 field determination on some 500 human subjects at Yale, Duke, and University of Pennsylvania Schools of Medicine, that "the variations of the EM fields of the human subjects provide an objective profile of similar variations in the feeling and behaviour states, and open the door to both long- and short-range predictions in time. Electrocyclic phenomena seem to be governed both by exogenous and endogenous factors. Primacy of the exogenous component is suggested, however, not only by plotting similar field excursions on diverse representatives of the plant and animal kingdoms within the same intervals, but also by demonstrating parallelisms between simultaneously recorded atmospheric, earth, and tree potential differences."
Biological organisms show extreme sensitivity for external EM signs, as the new branch of science, bioelectromagnetism has discovered (see the references above, Sect. V.). Recently, Kuznetsov (1982) reviewed the results of laboratory experiments with synchronous yeast cells Candida Utilis. " The presence of external rhythms' influence on the yeast cells growth in a batch cultivation system was established. The results of statistical processing of the experimental data showed the statistically significant presence of 160.009± 0.006-minute oscillations in the variability of the specific growth rate of the yeast population. The fact testifies in favour of the 160.01-minute global solar oscillations influence on the Candida Utilis growth rate." These oscillations were independently discovered in 1976 by two solar research groups in Crimea and Birmingham. Their results pointed out that the solar surface shows oscillations with a 160-minute period. Arguments proving the existence of this period in solar oscillations are given by Kotov (1995). The amplitude of this oscillation is low, only 1 m/s, changing permanently. The origin of this oscillation, contrary to the 5-minute oscillations, is not known, and inexplicable by the standard solar model (Kotov, 1985).
It is well known, that the ionosphere and the surface of the Earth form a cavity for the electromagnetic waves, therefore every electromagnetic disturbance in its attenuation may be transformed into a standing wave determined by the size of cavity (Schumann and König, 1954). The standing terrestrial electromagnetic waves, termed as Schumann waves, have a characteristic frequency of 7.5 Hz, coinciding with the range of the most creative brain EEG frequencies, a -waves, which are produced also in the REM phase of sleep. Moreover, the time characteristics of Schumann oscillations and the EEG a -rhythm, as well as storm-related fluctuations of electric field and the EEG d -rhythm show a noticeable similarity in their temporal variations (König, 1989). These circumstances may substantiate a hypothesis that human brains/minds are able to interact with the information field of the terrestrial organic self-maintaining system.
Human consciousness fields primarily interact at the a-level in frequencies around 7.5 Hz, therefore the creative state of mind is the same one as the most influential source of the collective consciousness field. Moreover, the human a-field interacts with the earthly a-field, with the Schumann waves. The b-field, the field of awake consciousness, in the present societies seems to be largely inactivated and, in contrary to the alpha-field, does not form an effective collective consciousness field. The reason for this anomaly is that the awake state is not in a continuous resonance with the a-field, as a result of the schism of breaking our mind into two antagonistic parts (see Grandpierre, E. K., this volume). This psychic anomaly is the factor behind the sporadic and low-level ESP abilities of the Homo sapiens sapiens. Inactivated information fields can only be actualised if consciousness turns against its deeper generating levels. The b-field of individuals is generally in an extraordinarily low-intensity state because most part of its energy is consumed in the repression of the deep-mind. Nevertheless, the way in which we can reach healthier consciousness fields is the development of the high-intensity b-field, which is filled with the powers of the deeper mind levels in a natural resonance. The d-and J -fields are related to cosmic electromagnetic wave fields (Grandpierre, A., 1996d). The natural sources of collective consciousness fields are the plants, animals, (non-manipulated) humans, the Earth, and, through the cosmic interface of the Earth, the magnetosphere, the Moon and the Sun, and, through the heliosphere, the whole Galaxy and Universe. Exploring and understanding the working of consciousness may help in tuning to its natural, more powerful sources, regaining a harmony between its main constituents, and opening a perspective to the experimental exploration of collective consciousness fields.
The evolution of consciousness - as the evolution of the Universe shows us - actually is in contrast to the presently accepted evolutionary theories, which want to build up the whole from the parts. In reality, evolution started from the whole and progressively differentiated into parts, from the timeless-spaceless form (e.g. the 'implicit order', or 'pre-space' of D. Bohm and J. A. Wheeler), through galaxies, through the development of the Solar System and the Earth, the appearance of the biosphere and mankind, until the development of smaller and smaller subsystems of consciousness, until the human individual. 'Cosmologies of wholeness' are emerging (see Laszlo, E., 1993; Harris, 1988). All of the cosmic evolution formed sub-systems within systems. Evolution begins with 'systems', 'elements' develop only later on. Every system originates as a subsystem of a larger, inclusive system. The organisation of the sub-system is made by the creator system, and the organisational factor acts from within, as well. This fact assumes that the creator system is in a certain way transformed into the to-be-created subsystem, the 'whole' is transformed to the 'part'. This global-local transformation is a necessary condition of the generation of the new system. Therefore the Universe acted continuously as an agent with organisation ability, and is progressively transformed from the largest of its subsystems into the smallest ones. The trend of evolution is simultaneously going towards a higher complexity and this way towards more and more complex subsystems, and in this way the real evolution is also accompanied by the state of becoming more and more complex and towards higher and higher forms of consciousness. Ervin Laszlo remarked: " Evolution acts on species and populations and not only - or even mainly - on individual reproducers. Individual variations do not contribute significantly to the emergence of new species." This trend, the primacy of 'global' over 'local' appears in the history of mankind (Grandpierre, E. K. this volume), starting with cosmic consciousness in the Golden Age of mankind. Later a break set up in the trend of human evolution, attempting to cut down the 'whole' from the 'part', the Cosmos from the living beings. The complex subsystem of human collectives preferred only one side of this cosmic trend, the more and more divided and separate complexity, the specification to individual human being, at the expense of general context and cosmic laws, drawing away and retiring from the growing collective order, loosing the connections to the larger, embracing levels of existence. As Andras Angyal expresses it the autonomous, self-maintaining tendency dominates over its dual brother, the homonymous, self-completing tendency (1941), the basic need for direct, sensual, artistic life-experiences. According to my research, the three inevitable motivating, life-long motivational instincts in our lives are the life-instinct, sustaining our individual life, the species-instinct, sustaining the life of our species, and the world-instinct, sustaining the life-functions of the Universe. The world-instinct is the basis of the other two, and it involves the imagination, intuition, curiosity, the desire for a meaningful life, to form healthy, alive communities, to correspond to larger units, to the Nature and the Universe (Grandpierre, A., 1991), therefore it is the world of the primary perception.
If we do not want to leave the road of cosmic evolution for ever, we may find again the path how to reveal our natural completion, the already hidden powers which the all-embracing cosmic evolution generated in our genes and basic constitution. Unfortunately, it has not been explored until now, how far we reached from our first-handed, natural drives, and what is the meaning that the Universe mediates to us. In order to form again a human, collective society, in which every individual sees the meaning of her/his activity and life, a meaning which is able to give an ultimate, lifelong satisfaction, we should recover the destination of mankind, and, besides it, the destination of the Universe. There is not any other task, which may be able to give a common perspective to all of us, than to explore and regain our destiny, to regain the harmony with the Nature and the Universe. Only this elevating and touching task may give back our harmony with ourselves. To do this, first we have to explore the nature of the Universe and understand the super-organism called biosphere - an organism with a collective consciousness.
Psychological researches teach that consciousness is vital when it is filled with emotional drives. Positive emotions enhance the dominating role of the neocortex in the brain activity ( Völgyesi, 1962). Our research (see Endre K. Grandpierre, this and a later volume) shows, that the basic and first step of any conscious activity is an interaction. If consciousness works through EM fields, its activity in every step involves changes in its EM field and the interaction of its EM field with another EM field - outer or of an inner subsystem. It means that EM induction results, which generates naturally a higher level of electromagnetic activity besides the overlapping and superposition of the two interactive EM fields. Consequently, the interactive EM fields when they are active, generate a subsidiary EM field, a 'daughter' field. This induction effect is suggested to be the physical basis of the 'group effect', the enhancement of the basic activity level when entering into interaction with another human being, consciously or without being aware of it. Therefore, the consciousness can not be regarded developed and healthy, if its 'exploration drives' and 'general activity drives', emotional motivations and desires are passive, and are hindered by the aware consciousness. Consciousness develops through the phenomenon of 'emotional infection', widespread among children, and also present in rituals and when masses of people form a community. In new-born children, the movements originate from spontaneous emotional reactions, their sources are within the emotional system (Wallon, H., 1946). " At the origin of evolution, in contrast with the traditional conception, an undivided state existed in which the outer and the inner were not separated." The propensity to interact originates from the nature of emotions, of their mutuality (Endre K. Grandpierre, this volume) and field-nature, which is the basis of the well-known phenomenon of 'transference' , the easy transfer of emotions in the trance-state from one person to another. This is the basis of the transference of emotions, its epidemic character, as well as the wide range phenomena of mass psychosis and collective impulses, when the individual consciousnesses merge into one single common consciousness (Wallon, ibid.).