Timeline of Persia

1000 B.C.

  • Kingdoms of Media and Parsa founded by migrating Aryans (c. 1000 B.C.)

700 B.C.

  • Achaemenes, first king of Persia (c. 700 B.C.)

600 B.C.

  • Cyrus the Great of Parsa rebels against the Medes and founds the Persian empire (559 B.C.)
  • Persia conquers the Medes (550 B.C.)
  • Persia conquers Lydia (547 - 546 B.C.)
  • Cyrus the Great of Persia conquers Babylonia absorbing Babylon into the Persian empire (539 B.C.)
  • Cyrus the Great of Persia frees the captive Jews from Babylonia (539 B.C.)
  • Cyrus the Great absorbs Phoenicia into the Persian Empire (539 B.C.)
  • Elam is absorbed into the Persian Empire (538 B.C.)
  • Egypt conquered by the Persians (525 B.C.)
  • Darius I quells a rebellion in Persia and becomes king (522 B.C.)
  • birth of Xerxes, future king of Persia (519 B.C.)

500 B.C.

  • Persian Wars (490 B.C. - 449 B.C.)
  • Darius I of Persia defeated by the Greeks at Marathon (490 B.C.)
  • Persia, led by Xerxes, invades Greece (480 B.C.)
  • Persians suffer defeat by the Greeks at Plataea and Mycale; Persian expansion halted (479 B.C.)
  • Egypt overthrows Persian rule (405 B.C.)
  • Cyrus the Younger rebels in Persia, but is defeated by Artaxerxes II at Cunoxa (401 B.C.)

400 B.C.

  • revolt of Jews against Artaxerxes III in Persia (350 B.C.)
  • Lydia becomes a tributary of Macedon after Persia is conquered by Alexander the Great (334 B.C.)
  • Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia at Issus (333 B.C.)
  • remants of the Persian Empire fall to Alexander the Great (332 B.C.)
  • Persian capital of Persepolis burned by Alexander the Great (331 B.C.)

500 A.D.

  • war between Byzantium and Persia (539-562 A.D.)
  • war between Byzantium and Persia (572-591 A.D.)

600 A.D.

  • Persians capture Damascus and Jerusalem (614 A.D.)
  • Arabs conquer Persia and Egypt (641 A.D.)