There followed an extensive hiatus

in available information through the 1980's up to the present day. This initially appears to have closely paralleled Ronald Reagan's presidency and not surprisingly flowed onwards during President Bush's term of office. (17) As a result, the once user-friendly Freedom of Information Act became less accessible and more bureaucratic. Search costs soared and material that had been (or scheduled to be) de-classified was reviewed and re-classified. This phenomenon is not an unusual occurrence in the United States, and tends to shadow the outward face of Congress. Public outrage leads to a temporary liberalization, but as public memory recedes (all too quickly) the old institutionalized covert ways quickly re-engage. We thus move to more recent times.

During 1989 CNN aired a program on electromagnetic weapons and showed a U.S. government document that outlined a contingency plan to use EM weapons against "terrorists." Prior to the show a DoD medical engineer sourced a story claiming that in the context of conditioning, microwaves and other modalities had regularly been used against Palestinians.

In 1993, Defense News announced that the Russian government was discussing with American counterparts the transfer of technical information and equipment known as "Acoustic Psycho-correction." The Russians claimed that this device involves "the transmission of specific commands via static or white noise bands into the human subconscious without upsetting other intellectual functions." Experts said that demonstrations of this equipment have shown "encouraging" results "after exposure of less than one minute," and has produced "the ability to alter behavior on willing and unwilling subjects." The article goes on to explain that combined "software and hardware associated with the (sic) psycho-correction program could be procured for as little as U.S. $80,000." The Russians went on to observe that "World opinion is not ready for dealing appropriately with the problems coming from the possibility of direct access to the human mind."

Acoustic psycho-correction dates back to the mid 1970's and can be used to "suppress riots, control dissidents, demoralize or disable opposing forces and enhance the performance of friendly special operations teams." (18) One U.S. concern in relation to this device was aired by Janet Morris of the Global Strategy Council, a Washington-based think tank established by former CIA deputy director Ray Cline. Morris noted that "Ground troops risk exposure to bone-conducting sound that cannot be offset by earplugs or other protective gear." In recent months I met with and discussed Russian research efforts, with a contact who had visited Russia earlier this year. He, in turn, met with a number of Russian scientists who are knowledgeable in this field. I have few doubts that the Defense News article cited earlier is fundamentally accurate.

In his pioneering work, Dr. Ross Adey determined that emotional states and behavior can be remotely influenced merely by placing a subject in an electromagnetic field. By directing a carrier frequency to stimulate the brain and using amplitude modulation to shape the wave to mimic a desired EEG frequency, he was able to impose a 4.5 CPS theta rhythm on his subjects. Drs. Joseph Sharp and Allen Frey experimented with microwaves seeking to transmit spoken words directly into the audio cortex via a pulsed-microwave analog of the speaker's sound vibration. Indeed, Frey's work in this field, dating back to 1960, gave rise to the so called "Frey effect" which is now more commonly referred to as "microwave hearing." (19) Within the Pentagon this ability is now known as "Artificial Telepathy." (20) Adey and others have compiled an entire library of frequencies and pulsation rates which can effect the mind and nervous system. (21)

During the siege at the Mt. Carmel church near Waco, Texas, FBI agents discussed with Russian counterparts the use of acoustic psycho-correction on David Koresh and the Branch Davidians. It is understood that this contingency did not proceed. However, some unusual EM weapons were deployed at Waco. BBC World News and FBI film-footage in the possession of this writer show both the Russian equipment being demonstrated, as well as previously unseen noise generator and an unusual low frequency strobe array in use at Waco.

Have weapons of this nature been developed and field tested?

Judging from the number of individuals and groups coming forward with complaints of harassment, the answer appears to be "yes." Kim Besley, of the Greenham Common Women's Peace Camp, has compiled a fairly extensive catalogue of effects that have resulted from low frequency signals emanating from the U.S. Greenham Common base, apparently targeted at the women protesters. These include: vertigo, retinal bleeding, burnt face (even at night), nausea, sleep disturbances, palpitations, loss of concentration, loss of memory, disorientation, severe headaches, temporary paralysis, faulty speech co-ordination, irritability and a sense of panic in non-panic situations. Identical and similar effects have been reported elsewhere and appear to be fairly common-place amongst so-called "victims." Many of these symptoms have been associated in medical literature with exposure to microwaves and especially through low intensity or non-thermal exposures. (22) These have been reviewed by Dr. Robert Becker, twice nominated for the Nobel Prize, and a specialist in EM effects. His report confirms that the symptoms mirror those he would expect to see had Microwave weapons been deployed.

The April 1994 issue of Scientific American carried an article entitled "Bang! You're Alive" which briefly described some of the known arsenal of "Less Than Lethal" weapons presently available. These include laser rifles and low-frequency infrasound generators powerful enough to trigger nausea or diarrhea. Steve Aftergood of the Federation of American Scientists (FAS) noted that non-lethal weapons have been linked to "mind control" devices and that three of the most prominent advocates of non-lethality share an interest in psychic phenomena. (23)

Current Projects include SLEEPING BEAUTY, directed towards the battlefield use of mind-altering electromagnetic weapons. This project is headed by Jack Verona, a highly placed Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) officer. Dr. Michael Persinger of Laurentian University is also employed on the project. Other sources have revealed a project entitled MONARCH which, supposedly, is directed towards the deliberate creation of severe multiple personality disorder. (24)

It is now the opinion of many that these and related programs have been brought under the banner of non-lethal weapons, otherwise known as "less than lethal," which are now promulgated in connection with the doctrine of low intensity conflict, a concept for warfare in the 21st century. It is clear that many of these Pentagon and related LTL programs operate under high classification. Others consider many similar or related "black" programs are funded from the vast resources presently available under the U.S. counter-drug law enforcement policy which has a FY 1995 budget of $13.2 billion. (25)

On 21 July 1994, Defense Secretary William J. Perry issued a memorandum on non-lethal weapons which outlined a tasking priority list for use of these technologies. Second on the list was "crowd control". Coming in at a poor fifth was "Disable or destroy weapons or weapon development/production processes, including suspected weapons of mass destruction." It is therefore clear that non-lethality is fundamentally seen as anti-personnel rather than anti-material.

In July 1996, the Spotlight, a widely circulated right-wing U.S. newspaper, reported that well-placed DoD sources have confirmed a classified Pentagon contract for the development of "high-power electromagnetic generators that interfere with human brain waves." The article cited the memorandum of understanding dated 1994 between Attorney General Janet Reno, and Defense Secretary William Perry for transfer of LTL weapons to the law enforcement sector. A budget of under $50 million has been made available for funding associated "black" programs. Dr. Emery Horvath, a professor of physics at Harvard University, has stated in connection to the generator that interferes with human brain waves that "These electronic 'skull-zappers' are designed to invade the mind and short circuit its synapses... in the hands of government technicians, it may be used to disorient entire crowds, or to manipulate individuals into self destructive acts. It's a terrifying weapon." (26)

In a 1993 U.S. Air Command and Staff College paper entitled Non Lethal Technology and Air Power, authors Maj. Jonathan W. Klaaren (USAF) and Maj. Ronald S. Mitchell (USAF) outlined selected NLT weapons. These included "Acoustic" (pulsed/attenuated high-intensity sound, infrasound (very low frequency) and Polysound (high volume, distracting) as well as high-power microwaves (HPM) that possessed the ability to deter or incapacitate human beings.

These and other classified weapons are being passed to domestic law enforcement agencies, as shown by the 1995 ONDCP (Office of National Drug Control Policy) International Technology Symposium, "Counter-Drug Law Enforcement: Applied Technology for Improved Operational Effectiveness," which outlined the "Transition of advanced military technologies to the civil law enforcement environment." There are some observers who fear that the burgeoning narcotics industry is an ideal "cover" in which to "transit" Non Lethal Technologies to domestic political tasks. Whether this is merely a misplaced "Orwellian" fear remains to be seen. However, organized crime is so globally "organized" that experts now believe it is impossible to eradicate or even effectively combat. (27)